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Background and Objectives There are many possible causes of sudden deafness such as viral infection, vascular occlusion, immune-mediated mechanism and abnormal cellular stress response in the cochlea. Viral hypothesis is one of the potential mechanisms for explaining sudden deafness. The aims of this study were to investigate the usefulness of viral IgM antibodies to evaluate the clinical findings and prognosis in sudden sensorineural hearing loss and to identify the more useful viral IgM antibodies. Subjects and Method A retrospective study was carried out for 283 patients with sudden deafness. The results of serologic tests performed for the following were studied: Ebstein barr virus (EBV), Measles, Mumps, Toxoplasma, Rubella, Cytomegalovirus, Varicella zoster virus, Herpes simplex virus, and human immunodeficiency virus. Results of blood tests and audiologic tests taken initially and 2 months after the onset of sudden deaf were studied as well. Results Positive ratio of Viral IgM antibodies was 4.9% (13/283). Clincial findings and prognosis of viral IgM positive patients were not different from other sudden deafness patients except for the age factor. EBV Viral capsid antigen, EBV Early antigen-diffuse and restrict complex were common positive viral markers in sudden hearing loss patients. One third of the patients (4/13) had viral markers for Measles, Mumps and Toxoplasma. Conclusion In sudden deafness, the positive ratio of serologic tests for viral IgM antibodies was less than 5% and viral IgM positive patients had similar clinical findings and prognosis to viral IgM negative patients. However, viral origins of Measles, toxoplasam and Mumps as well as EBV should be considered in sudden deafness patients with the symptoms and signs of viral infection.
Conventional impedance audiometry uses only specific tympanometric frequencies (e.g., 226 Hz) and cannot test above 1500 Hz. As many hearing frequencies must be evaluated when diagnosing middle ear pathologies, wideband clicks stimulating tympanometric receptors from 226 to 8000 Hz are commonly delivered. Since wideband tympanometry (WBT) was introduced in 1993, several studies have explored its clinical utility. WBT yields information on absorbances at various frequencies and pressures. Recently, WBT has become increasingly used to diagnose and monitor the hearing of newborns and patients with otosclerosis, ossicular chain disruptions, tympanic perforations, superior semicanal dehiscence syndrome, and middle ear effusions. WBT is also employed for pre/postoperative monitoring using non-pressurized wideband absorbance. Here, we review the concept of WBT, the basic mechanism, and the clinical applications. Korean J Otorhinolaryngol-Head Neck Surg 2017;60(8):375-80
Carotid body tumor is a rare lesion of the neuroendocrine system. It typically presents as a slow growing, painless neck massfound along the anterior border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle. We present clinicoradiologic findings of a bilateral carotidbody tumor from a 35-year-old woman with a review of literatures. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a vascular mass at thecarotid bifurcation, displacing the external and internal carotid arteries. After embolization of feeding vessels using polyvinylalcohol and gelfoam, we excised the mass without severe bleeding and neurologic symptoms. (Korean J Otolaryngol 2006;49:1042-5)
Otologists and audiologists care for patients and conduct clinical research to find more effective treatments that benefit patients. Institutional Review Board (IRB) permission is necessary for conducting clinical trials on humans. Furthermore, many bioethical conflicts are encountered while conducting research. However, few otologists and audiologists in Korea know bioethics and the principles and regulations of IRBs in detail. This paper reviews the history of ethics in clinical research and current bioethical principles and IRB regulations. We outline what you need as otologists or audiologists to get IRB approval while considering the principles of bioethics.
Background and Objectives:The Korean phoneticaly balanced (PB) word list (Ham's Korean PB Word List) is currently the most commonly used word list for spech discrimination test. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency characte-ristics of the Hams Korean PB word list and to compare frequency characteristics of the Hams Korean PB word list with that of the 21st Century Sejong words, which represent characteristics of the contemporary spoken Korean language. Subjects and Method:Century Sejong words were weighted according to the frequency of usage. The 21st Century Sejong words and words from the Hams Korean PB word list were analyzed using an acoustic analysis program that has the MATLAB function. Results:Sylables with frequencies above 2,000 Hz comprise 34% of the 21st Century Sejong words and 16% of the Hams Korean PB word list. The Hams Korean PB word list does not represent the high frequency characteristics of the contemporary spoken ㅡ, ㅣ and open sylables than the Hams Korean PB word list. Conclusion:The Hams Korean PB word list does not reflect the high frequency characteristics of the contemporary spoken Korean language included in the 21st Century Sejong words. Therefore, a new PB word list that incorporates a greater number of sylables with high frequency characteristics is required. (Korean J Otolaryngol 2007 ;50 :480-5)
Tinnitus is defined as auditory perception without external sound. There is currently no cure for tinnitus. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is a tinnitus treatment that addresses the affected individual's reaction to tinnitus. It aims not to eliminate auditory perception as sound but to reduce or correct one's negative response to tinnitus. CBT identifies negative automatic thought and then evaluates its validity with the patient. It also aims to change negative automatic thought to more positive and realistic thought. In this way, tinnitus sufferers can function well despite the presence of tinnitus. Many studies have supported the efficacy of CBT for treating tinnitus. A meta-analysis of CBT for tinnitus also concluded that CBT is effective in treating tinnitus. Thus, CBT is considered a good option for treating tinnitus. We herein discuss the use of CBT for tinnitus with a literature review.
Background and Objectives: This study aimed to analyze risk factors for positional vertigo(PV) and the influence thereof on daily life and subjective quality-of-life (QoL). Subject andMethods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using data of the 2010 Korea NationalHealth and Nutrition Examination Survey. The study population consisted of 1,274 individualsaged >40 years for whom complete dizziness-related data were available. Blood andurine tests were performed, and nutritional intake, QoL, and subjective health status weremeasured using a questionnaire. The associations between PV and blood/urine test dataand nutritional intake were evaluated via multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: A historyof PV within the previous year was reported by 98 individuals (7.7%). Advanced age andfemale gender were both significantly associated with such a history. Serum hemoglobin,creatinine, and triglyceride levels correlated significantly with a history of PV. Carotene, vitaminA, and vitamin B2 intakes were significantly lower in individuals with PV. Multivariateanalysis revealed that only age was significantly associated with a history of PV (p=0.003). Although subjective health status score was not significantly lower in subjects with PV, subjectiveimpairments in mobility, self-care, the performance of usual activities, and anxiety/depressionwere more prominent in individuals with PV. A fall history and limitations of activitywere also significantly higher in individuals with PV (p<0.001 and p=0.003, respectively). Conclusions: Age was a risk factor for PV, which affected most QoL parameters, fall frequency,and the performance of normal activities.