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        • 이질 문화 상호간의 컴뮤니케이션 연구

          朴命錫 단국대학교 1990 論文集 Vol.24 No.-

          A study on Intercultural Communication is an attempt directed to an understanding of the essentials of crosscultural communication. Its rationale for existence stems in part from the realization that encounters among people who come from different cultural backgrounds are difficult and can often lead to misunderstanding and conflict. The difficulty is partially due to the varying predispositions of the individuals engaged in intercultural interaction. These predisipositions cause persons from dissimilar cultures to expect different kinds of behavior in a given situation and to interpret the same behaviors differently. The particular experiences that persons from dissimilar cultural backgrounds bring into communication situations can thereby create obstacles to effective and satisfactory talk. I would argue that many of the obstacles can be softened or eliminated entirely. This can be done to some degree by comprehending what predispositions influence intercultural communication. With this knowledge as a foundation, those persons expecting to engage on intercultural talk can be more aware of and sensitive to the cultural causes of misunderstanding and conflict. With this awareness, improvement in intercultural communication can be anticipated. The knowledge necessary to make persons culturally aware comes from understanding the essentials of communication, culture and the interrelationships between the two. I have found four broad subjects of special importance when discussing intercultural communication. I think we are interested in all of these and while we may sometimes concentrate on one or another, we must always keep in mind that they are all closely related. If we stress only one to the exclusion of others we are likely to be misled in our interpretation of intercultural communication. These four are : 1. language and language behavior (or language and culture relationships) 2. nonverbal behavior 3. cultural values and communication 4. thinking patterns or reasoning The popular notion of communication across cultures tends to stress only the first of these. That is, it is popularly thought that if only all people spoke the same language we would have no misunderstandings across cultures. Obviously, problems are not that simple. The study of communication historically, as a humanistic study, has stressed the last two more than the first. Here I am thinking particularly of the rhetorical tradition, exemplifed by Aristotle. What is especially significant here is that in this tradition there is almost no concern with cultural differences. I would like to propose these four categories as a listing in order of ascending difficulty. Based on discussions with persons who lead "intercultural lives," whether professionally or by virtue of an intercultural marriage, almost always people say that learning and adaption to another language, difficult though it is, is less a problem than being sensitive to the range of nonverbal behaviors that differ ; and that these can be accommodated or enve mastered if one is young enough but that conflicts in cultural values may be unavoidable : and that while one may come to understand or at least appreciate the vital differences in cultural values, many have given up trying to understand how another person reason, I will take these one at a time.

        • KCI등재

          문화권간의 비언어적 의사소통에 대한 고찰

          박명석 한국외국어대학교 외국어 종합연구센터 언어연구소 1980 언어와 언어학 Vol.6 No.-

          In a world rapidly shrinking into one small community such as ours, the ever-increasing need to establish a firm foundation upon which cross-cultural communication may be effected successfully is only too apparent. Succsesful particpation in intercultural communication requires us to be more than familiar with culture's influence on verbal interaction. It requires us to recognize and have knowledge of the influence culture has on nonverbal interaction as well. Nonverbal behaviors consist of messages to which people attach meaning, just as verbal behaviors do. Because nonverbal symbols are derived from among such diverse behaviors as body movement, postures, facial expressions, eye movements, physical appearance, the use and organization of space, and the structuralization of time, these behaviors of ten vary from culture to culture. Conseequently, and awareness of the role of nonverbal communication is crucial if we are going to appreciate all aspects of intercultural interaction. Culture tends to determine the specific nonverbal behaviors that represent of symbolize specific thoughts, feelings, of states of the communicators, Thus what might be a sigh of greeting in on culture could very well be and obscene gesture in another. Or what might be a symbol of affirmation to one culture could be meaningless of even signify negation in another. A young Korean high school student newly immigrated to the United States was struck by on of his classmates when he was found rubbing his desk with his extended middle finger, unaware of the implied symbolism in American society. Since such a gesture has no meaning in Korea, he was at a loss to understand why he was struck. It wasn't until later that the meaning of the extended middle finger was explained to him by another Korean student. In America the use of this gesture is considered crude and extremely degrading to the individual, since it implies that the individual can only have sexual intercourse with himself of herself. Misunderstanding of nonverbal communication of and unconscious kind is one of the most vexing, and unnecessary, sources of international friction. Consider, for example, the hands-over-the-head delf-handshake of Khrushchev which he made in response to Americans' receiving him warmly when he came to America in 1959. Americans interpreted it as an arrogant gesture of triumph, as of a victorious prizefighter, whereas Khrushchev seems to have intended it as a friendly gesture of international brotherhood. Would Pearl Harbor have not occurred if americans had been able to read the "Japanese smile" of the diplomats as they left their last fateful meeting with Secretary of the State Cordell Hull? The term nonverbal communication indicates a contrast which spoken or written language. Unlike spoken languages, which, as nearly everybody in the world knows, differ from place to place, there is a common notion that most of the topics included in the nonverbal area are universal, natural, and not learned. Watzlawick and his colleagues have written that while most speech is digitally expressive, nonverbal behavior is analogical. Nonverbal sighs may be far more analogical than speech, but it is quite apparent that nonverbal expressions are not pure analogies for their meanings. The distinction between the digital and the analogical marks a difference in the contemporary approaches to nonverbal communication. Unlike spoken language, which is based on a comprehensible system(digital), nonverbal communication may of may not be so systematized. Currently, most academic studies of nonverbal behavior assume that, like spoken language, they are learned and not "natural", that they conform to some system, and in time will yield something like grammar, syntax, and vocabulary. As important as verbal language is to a communication event, nonverbal communication is just as important if not more important. Its importance can be seen from communication research, which indicases that as much as 90 percent of the social content of a message is transmitted paralinguistically or nonverbally. Most studies of nonverbal behavior across cultures seem to have concentrated on the form of and expression-smiling, eye contact, distance-as this varies or is consistent in different societies. Perhaps a better approach would be to start with the values of a culture and then relate a variety of nonverbal forms to those values. Some understanding of the underlying cultural value orientations should help to make diverse forms of nonverbal behavior immediately more comprehensible, and conversely, sensing patterns of nonverbal expressiveness should give us clues to the underlying value orientations.

        • KCI등재
        • KCI등재

          HMI와 PLC를 기반으로 한 LED조명의 효율적인 제어시스템 구현에 관한 연구

          박명석,천승규 한국지식정보기술학회 2021 한국지식정보기술학회 논문지 Vol.16 No.4

          In this study, hardware related to individual lighting control with improved ease of use and minimum generation of heat generated from LED lighting equipment, which is practically required for buildings that require 'zero energy buildings' and 'high efficiency loads', was constructed. For this reason, not only efficient individual ON/OFF lighting control, but also simple ON/OFF by existing indoor group by individually applying and connecting LED lighting fixtures based on PLC (Programmable Logic Controller), a general-purpose controller device that is easy to access during construction and installation. The possibility of reducing the heat generated by the lighting of unnecessary LED lighting fixtures by lighting and improving the energy loss was confirmed. In addition, by linking the microprocessor controller and HMI (Human Machine Interface) to the input and output terminals centered on PLC (Programmable Logic Controller), the convenience and efficiency of individual ON/OFF lighting are simultaneously improved, and IoT (Internet of Things) technology and EMS (Energy Management System) and the possibility of efficient interworking of sensors were also confirmed. 본 연구는 ‘제로에너지 건축물’과 ‘고효율 부하’를 필요로 하는 건물에 실질적으로 필요시 되는 LED조명기구에서 발생되는 열의 최소 발생과 함께 사용 편리성을 개선한 개별적 점등제어에 관한 하드웨어를 구성하였다. 효율적인 개별 ON/OFF 점등제어는 물론 시공과 설치에서 접근이 쉬운 범용성 컨트롤러 기기인 PLC(Programmable Logic Controller)를 기반으로 LED조명기구와 개별적으로 응용 결선하여, 기존의 옥내 그룹별 단순 ON/OFF점등에 의해서 불필요한 LED조명기구의 점등으로 발생 되는 열 발생을 줄이고, 에너지손실 개선 가능성을 확인하였다. 또한 PLC(Programmable Logic Controller)를 중심으로 입·출력단자에 마이크로프로세서 컨트롤러와 HMI(Human Machine Interface) 등을 연동하여 개별적인 ON/OFF점등의 편리성과 효율성을 동시에 개선하여 IoT(Internet of Things)기술과 EMS(Energy Management System), 센서(Sensor)의 효율적인 연동 가능성도 확인하였다.

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