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In total, 131 Escherichia coli isolates from surface seawater of the Gomso Bay, of Korea, were analyzed for their susceptibility to 22 different antimicrobials and for genes associated with antimicrobial resistance and virulence. According to the disk diffusionsusceptibility test, the resistance to tetracycline was most prevalent (33.6%), followed by that to ampicillin (22.1%), ticarcillin (22.1%), and trimethoprim (16.8%). More than 46.6% of the isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial, and 22.9% wereresistant to three or more classes of antimicrobials; these were consequently defined as multidrug resistant. We further found that 29 ampicillin-resistant isolates possessed genes encoding TEM-type (93.1%) and SHV-type (6.9%) β-lactamases. Amongthe 44 tetracycline-resistant isolates, tetA and tetC were found in 35 (79.5%) and 19 (43.2%), respectively, whereas tetB was detected in only three isolates (6.8%). With regard to virulence genes, merely 0.8% (n = 1) and 2.3% (n = 3) of the isolates werepositive for the enteroaggregative E. coli-associated plasmid (pCVD432) gene and the enteropathogenic E. coli-specific attaching and effacing (eae) gene, respectively. Overall, these results not only provide novel insight into the necessity for seawater sanitation in Gomso Bay, but they help reduce the risk of contamination of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria.
In this study, the β-lactamase (VPA0477) gene was used as a new target for the PCR-based detection ofVibrioparahaemolyticus . Primers specific for the β-lactamase (VPA0477) gene of V. parahaemolyticus , were designed and incorporated into a PCR-based assay. The assay was able to specifically detect all of the 191 V. parahaemolyticus strains tested, but did not result in amplification of 39 other Vibrio spp. and nonVibrio spp. strains tested. The detection limit of the assay was 10 CFU of V. parahaemolyticus RIMD2210633 from pure culture broth. The β-lactamase (VPA0477) gene-based assay developed in this study was sensitive and specific, and has great potential for the accurate detection and identification of V. parahaemolyticus in seawater or seafood samples.
10%의 고농도 에탄올에 내성을 나타내는 Acetobacter sp. FM-10의 초산 발효조건을 검토한 결과, Acetobacter sp. FM-10을 이용하여 정치배양했을 경우, 배양액의 초기 초산농도는 초산 생성속도에 큰 영향을 미쳤는데, 0.75% 농도 까지는 초기 초산농도가 높을수록 좋았으나, 1% 부터는 초산생성이 현저히 저해되었다. 한편, 배지의 초기 에탄올 농도를 5%로 하여 배양하다가 배양액속의 에탄올이 소모된 시점에서 에탄올을 1%씩 추가시켜 주었을 경우에 배양 초기 부터 10%의 에탄올배지에서 배양시킨 경우 보다 발효수율이 월등히 저하되어 주목할만한 산도 증가는 나타나지 않았다. 100rpm 이상으로 진탕배양하였을 때 진탕속도가 증가할수록 최고 산도에 도달하는 시간이 빨라졌으며, 150rpm에서는 배양 10일 만에 최고 산도가 8.3%에 도달하여 정치배양 보다 최고산도에 이르는 시간이 10일 정도 빨랐다. 발효조에서 초산생산 최적조건은 교반속도 700rpm, 통기량 5L/min였다. The fermenting conditions for acetic acid production with Acetobacter sp. FM-10 which could grow in the medium containing 10% ethanol were investigated. Initial concentration of acetic acid in broth medium affected greatly to the fermentation speed. For example, the acetic acid production increased proportionally by the increasing of initial concentration of acetic acid up to 0.75%, while it decreased rapidly in case of the acetic acid concentration was higher than 1.0%. When the cultivation was started with broth medium containing 5% ethanol, the additional adding ethanol during the fermentation was not significantly increased the acidity of the medium. The acidity of the medium containing 10% ethanol was reached to 8.3% after shaking cultivation for 10 days with 150rpm shaking speed. Acetic acid production with shaking cultivation was faster than static cultivation by about 10 days under the same condition except shaking. In acetic acid fermentation with the batch style fermentor, the optimum fermentation condition was 700rpm of agitation speed and 5L/min of air flow rate in 3L culture medium.
Twenty-three Bacillus cereus strain isolated from commercial jeotgal were investigated for 11 toxin genes and susceptibility to 25 different antimicrobials. The hemolytic enterotoxins hblA, hblC, and hblD were detected in 13.0%, and non-hemolytic enterotoxins nheA, nheB, and nheC were detected in 26.1%, 100%, and 100% of the isolates, respectively. The positive rates of cytK, entFM, becT, hlyII, and ces were 73.9%, 60.9%, 26.1%, 8.7%, and 0.0%, respectively. According to the disk diffusion susceptibility test, all of the strains studied were resistant to cefuroxime, followed by cefoxitin (78.3%), oxacillin (78.3%), ampicillin (69.6%), penicillin G (69.6%), and amoxicillin (65.2%). However, all the strains were susceptible to 11 other antimicrobials, including amikacin, chloramphenicol, and ciprofloxacin. The average minimum inhibitory concentrations of amoxicillin, ampicillin, and cefuroxime against B. cereus were 462.9, 235.0, and 135.0 μg/mL, respectively. These results highlight the need for sanitizing commercial jeotgal, and provide evidence to help reduce the risk of jeotgal contamination by antimicrobial-resistant bacteria.
식초 생산의 수율을 높이기 위해 재래식 식초생산에 사용되고 있는 종초로 부터 고농도의 에탄올에 내성을 나타내는 균주를 에탄올 순양법으로 개발해 내었다. 에탄올이 5~10% 첨가된 액체배지에 종초를 각각 가하여 에탄올 10%에서 증식이 가능한 균주를 순양 개시 42일만에 분리해 내었고, 이를 동정하여 Acetobacter sp. FM-10이라고 명명하였으며, 이 균주의 배양 특성을 살펴본 결과는 다음과 같다. Acetobacter sp. FM-10의 중식 최적조건을 살펴본 결과, 최적온도는 30℃였으며, 최적 pH는 5.0이었다. 초산생산에 적합한 배지의 조성은 에탄올 10%, 포도당 5%, yeast extract 1%가 함유된 배지였다. 식초생산 최적조건은 에탄올이 10% 첨가된 배지를 이용하여 30℃에서 정치배양시 배양 20일만에 최고 산도인 9.0%에 도달하였다. To increase the yield of acetic acid production, the author developed the bacterial strain which could grow well in high concentration of ethanol from the seed culture using in conventional vinegar production factory. By attenuation of the isolated strain in the broth media containing 5-10% ethanol, we could get the strain which could grow in the broth medium containing 10% ethanol. This strain was identified and named as Acetobacter sp. FM-10, and it's cultural characteristics were also investigated. The medium containing 10% ethanol, 5% glucose and 1% yeast extract was suitable for the acetic acid production with Acetobacter sp. FM-10. Optimum temperature and pH for the growth of Acetobacter sp. FM-10 were 30℃ and 5.0, respectively. The acidity of culture medium was reached to 9.0% after 20 days static cultivation at 30℃.
The pathogenic Vibrio genus contains halophilic bacteria that are distributed in marine and freshwater environments. Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio vulnificus, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus are potent human pathogens and leading causes of septicemia, wound infection, and seafood-borne gastroenteritis. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of pathogenic Vibrio species in seawater off the west coast of Korea. Sixty-four seawater samples were obtained from different sites in Gomso Bay and Byeonsan from April 2018 to November 2018. Pathogenic Vibrio species were detected using a combination of most probable number (MPN)-polymerase chain reaction methods. V. cholerae, V. vulnificus, and V. parahaemolyticus were found in 0.0%, 20.3%, and 65.6% of seawater samples, respectively. Quantitative results revealed 3.6-23 MPN/100 mL of V. vulnificus, and 3.6-930 MPN/100 mL of V. parahaemolyticus in the samples. Overall, these results provide new insight into the necessity for seawater sanitation in Gomso Bay and Byunsan; they also provide evidence that will help reduce outbreaks of seafood-borne illness caused by pathogenic Vibrio species.