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The conditions for the formation of β-silicon carbide whisker by vapor phase reaction in SiCl₄-Cl₂C = CH₂-H₂ system have been investigated. The conversion rate of SiCl₄ into SiC increased with reaction temperature and had been taken maximum value when the range of SiC1₄/Cl₂C = CH₂ mole ratio was from 2.5 to 2.8. The β-silicon carbide whisker can be formed in the range of reaction temperature from 1,100℃ to 1,500℃; SiCl₄/Cl₂C = CH₂ mole ratio, from 0.5 to 8.0,; total flow rate of the reactant gas at 300㎖/min. This whiskers were identified as the 8F type SiC by X-ray diffraction and had the length of 20㎛ or longer.
This study was done to see the changes in the serum transaminase and LDH levels after general anesthesis in open heart surgery. We selected at random 60 patients who had received open heart surgery under cardiopulmonary bypass with mild to moderate hypothermia. They were divided into 3 groups depending on the anesthetic agents, halothane, Penthrane and morphine group. Serum transaminase and LDH levels were checked before operation and also about 24 hours after operation; SGOT; spectrophotometric assay by end-point method with Sequential Multiple Autoanalyser(SMA), SGPT; Spectrophotometric assay by kinetic method with SMA, LDH; Spectrophotometric assay by kinetic method. The results were as follows; 1) Serum transaminase and LDH levels were not significantly influenced by anesthetic agents after open heart surgery. 2) Serum transaminase and LDH levels were not significantly influenced by anesthetic agents in congental heart disease. 3) Serum transaminase and LDH levels were not significantly influenced by anesthetic agents in acquired heart disease.
Generally, myasthenic patients are believed to have enhanced sensitivity with variety to the nondepolarizing neuromuscular blockade, even though some authors do not agree with that. Recent1y, the use of the new intermediate-acting nondepolarizing relaxant atracurium has been reported in patient with myasthenia gravis. The unique mode of elimination of atra-curium, which undergoes spontaneous degradation at physiologic body temperature and pH. may offer an advantage over the previously available Bong-acting muscle relaxants. We describe a case report of the anesthetic management of mysthenic patient using atracurium because of its relatilvely rapid rate of recovery. Reduced dosage of atracurium appeared to be a reasonable choice for myasthenic patients requring surgical relaxation when clinically indicated. However, continuous monitoring of neuromuscular function is of course mandatory for the proper and safe use of atracurium.
Recent studies have shown that narcotic druga produce an unusually intense, prolonged and segmental analgesic action in man when injected into the spinal subarachnoid or epidural space (Wang et al, 1979; Behar et al, 1979; Cousins et al, 1979; Magora et al, 1980, Johnston and McCaughey, 1980). Since 1960, many investigatora claimed that low molecular weight(LMW) dextran increased the clinical duration of lidocaine(Loder, 1960; Loder, 1962), tetracaine(Chinn and Wirjoatmadja, 1967) and bupivacaine(Kaplan et al, 1975) in man but the mechanism of the action of dextran was unclear. But Curtiss and Scurlock(1979), and Buckley and Fink(1979) claimed that LMW dextran has no effect on the duration of action of bupivacaine in animal studies. The present study was performed to evaluate the clinical efficacy of analgesia by the thoracic epidural injection of morphine and bupivacaine mixture for the relief of pain due to fractured or contused ribs, to evaluate the duration of analgesic effect by the use of the above mixture in a hypertonic solution(dextran 70 or 50% dextrose in water) and to observe the possibility of improvement in the lung function after the pain block. The complications following the pain block were also observed. The 50 single thoracic epidural injections of the mixture were divided into three groups: Group 1(n=15) served as a control group and drugs used for the relief of pain were as follows(Mean±S.D.): morphine(2.13±1.64 mg), 0.5% bupivacaine(3.10±1.04 ml) and 0.9% saline(3.64±1.11 ml). Group 2(n=16) served as an experimental group and drugs were as follows(Mean±S.D.): morphine(2.13±0.72 mg), 0.5% bupivacaine(3.06±0.77 ml) and dextran 70(3.75±1.29 ml). Croup 3(n=19) served as an experimental group and drugs were as followa(Mean±S.D.): morphine(2.42±0.51 mg), 0.5% bupivacaine(3.21±0.71 ml) and 50% dextrose in water(3.68±1.11 ml). The results are were follows: 1) The number of patients who obtained excellent and good analgesic effecta following the block were greater in the experimental Grou Group 3 (90%) than those of the control GrouP 1 (80%). 2) The duration of pain relief which lasted more than 3 days after the epidural block was longer in the experimental Group 2 (81%) and Group 3 (75%) than those of the control Group 1(67%). 3) The pulmonary reserve(FVC%+FEV1.0%) of 27 caaes who were treated by the pain block between 1 and 31 days following the chest injury was increased to about 13% than those before the block, and that of 13 cases between 32 and 82 days following the chest injury was decreased to about 4% than those before the block. 4) Of the complications following the pain block, there were 5 cases(10%) of nausea within 2 hours following the block, 4 cases(8%) of vomiting after 2 hours following the block, 10 cases(20%) of pruritus after 3-4 houra following the block, 17 cases(34%) of transient urinary retention which lasted 8 to 19 hours, 3 cases(6%) of headache within 2 hours following the block and 2 caaes(4%) of dural puncture. In conclusion, it is suggested that the clinical duration of analgesic effect produced by morphine and bupivacaine mixture can he prolonged by addition of the hypertonic solution to the mixture.
In this study, the extraction and reduction behavior of platinum group metals in a non-aqueous solvent based on ionic liquids was investigated in order to confirm a new extraction technology of platinum group metals. Platinum was selectively extracted using an ionic liquid [C 4 mim]PF 6 from a mixed solution of PdCl 2 , PtCl 4 and RhCl 3 dissolved with concentration ratio of 10:1:0.5 M. After stripping of the metals by 1 M HNO 3 solution, the platinum was preferentially reduced by aqueous electrolysis on gold electrode at –0.8 V (vs. Pt-QRE). The residual palladium and rhodium were transferred to ionic liquid of [C 4 mim]Cl. The metallic palladium and rhodium could be sequentially reduced on gold and STS304 as working electrodes by non-aqueous electrolysis, respectively. 본 연구에서는 백금족 금속의 분리회수 가능성을 알아보기 위해 백금족 금속 혼합물로부터 이온성액체 기반의 용매에서 백금족금속의 추출과 전해 환원거동을 조사하였다. 촉매조성인 10:1:0.5 M의 비로 PdCl 2 , PtCl 4 , RhCl 3 가 용해되어 있는 혼합액으로부터이온성액체인 [C 4 mim]PF 6 를 이용하여 백금(Pt)을 선택적으로 추출한 후 수계 전해액인 1 M HNO 3 으로 역추출하고 .0.8 V (vs. Pt- QRE)의 전압과 금을 작동전극으로 사용하여 백금을 우선적으로 회수하였다. 잔류하는 팔라듐과 로듐은 [C 4 mim]Cl 용액으로 추출한 다음 비수계 전해법으로 환원회수하였다. 전극물질과 전압에 따른 두 금속의 환원거동을 조사하였으며, 작동전극을 탄소, 금과STS304를 이용하여 각각 팔라듐과 로듐을 순차적으로 회수할 수 있었다.
Tetralogy of Fallot constituten the highest proportion of cyanotic congenital heart disease and has four basic abnormal anatomical pictures including ventricular septal defect, pulmonary stenosis, aortic overriding and right ventricular hypertrophy. The work of Edwards, et al (1965), Guntheroth, et al (1965) and Lev and Eckner (1964) has shown that the anatomical picture in a combination of just first two morphological characteristics, the aortic overriding and right ventricular hypertrophy being a consequence of the ventricular septal defect and pulmonary stenosis. Basic signs involve two categories, one is change of shunt rate depending on pulmonary stenosis, ventricular septal defect and systemic vascular resistance, and the other is physiological response to the chronically lowered PaO_2. Thus the pathophysiological status presents to us more problems than other congenital heart disease in the care of patients during operation and anesthesia. Therefore, the anesthesiologist must understand the basic pathophysiology, various findings of examination, symptoms and signs, the problems during anesthesia and postoperative care. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anesthetic management in total corrective surgery of tetralogy of Fallor which was performed at Severance Hospital. Out of consecutive 160 cases of tetralogy of Fallot in our past ten years experiences from 1971 to 1980, we selected the clinical results on anesthetic care of 121 cases which received total corrective surgery under hypothermia and extracoporeal circulation. The results were as follows; 1) Out of 121 cases, 82 cases were male (67.8%) and female was 39 cases (32.2%). The group aging from 6 to 10 year old was the highest proportion (44.6%) and the next proportion was the group aging from 11 to 15 (22.3%). 2) Out of 121 cases, 91 cases were cyanotic (75.2%). On the diagnostic distribution, tetralogy of Fallot without any other anomaly was the most common (66.9%). 3) As for premedicants, secobarbital was the highest proportion (28.1%). For anesthetic maintenance, methoxyflurance with nitrous oxide was the most common (43.8%). 4) During cardio-pulmonary bypass, high flow perfusion was commonly used and the highest mean arterial pressure was 89.09±1.21 mmHg and the lowest mean arterial pressure was 36.33±1.21 mmHg. 5) The major complication after operation and anesthesia were dysrhythmia (13.1%), pleural effusion (10.3%), main wound infection (10.3%), hemorrhage (8.3%), acute renal failure (8.3%), heart failure (6.9%), low output syndrome (4.1%) and cerebral infarection due to air embolism (2.7%). 6) Out of 121 cases were expired and hospital mortality was 23.1%. The causes of death were heart failure (50%), acute renal failure (14.3%) and cerebral in farction (14.3%). In conclusion, anesthetic care for total corrective surgery of tetralogy of Fallot should be based upon the understanding of the pathophysiology of disorder itself.