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The stability of citrate-capped silver nanoparticles(AgNPs) and the embryonic developmental toxicitywere evaluated in the fish test water. Serious aggregation ofAgNPs was observed in undiluted fish water (DM-100) inwhich high concentration of ionic salts exist. However,AgNPs were found to be stable for 7 days in DM-10,prepared by diluting the original fish water (DM-100) withdeionized water to 10 %. The normal physiology of zebrafishembryos were evaluated in DM-10 to see if DM-10can be used as a control vehicle for the embryonic fishtoxicity test. As results, DM-10 without AgNPs did notinduce any significant adverse effects on embryonicdevelopment of zebrafish determined by mortality, hatching,malformations and heart rate. When embryonic toxicityof AgNPs was tested in both DM-10 and in DM-100,AgNPs showed higher toxicity in DM-10 than in DM-100. This means that the big-sized aggregates of AgNPs werelow toxic compared to the nano-sized AgNPs. AgNPsinduced delayed hatching, decreased heart rate, pericardialedema, and embryo death. Accumulation of AgNPs in theembryo bodies was also observed. Based on this study,citrate-capped AgNPs are not aggregated in DM-10 and itcan be used as a control vehicle in the toxicity test of fishembryonic development.
Metallothionein gene expression activity of cadmium was investigated in a human lung epithelial cell line. Cells, grown to near confluence, were exposed to 0~10 μM Cd metal for 6 hours. Cadmium did not cause morphological alteration in lung epithelial cells that are characteristic of cell damages such as cell shrinkage, detachment of the cell from its neighbors, cytoplasmic and chromatic condensation. However, metallothionein genes of MT-I and MT-2 were rapidly induced in the treated cell measured by RT-PCR. Regarding the induction pattern of metallothionein mRNA, MT- I mRNA was induced in a dependent manner. MT~2 mRNA induction, which was measured using oligo primers based on cDNA of human reticulocytes, seemed to be slightly increased in low doses but decreased at high concentration used in the experiment.