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Every generation feels a need as well as a desire 'to name and substantiate itself by producing an interpretation of cultural antecedent', says Gregory S. Jay. So T.S. Eliot produces one of his own, but he denounces our 'blind and timid' dependence upon cultural antecedents and 'the objectivity of personal memory'. He simply negates the validity of the memory of the past, hence of the present, too, by saying that "the past remembered was never lived." Eliot urges us to re-excavate, re-interpret, and re-live the past as memory and the past remembered. This proposal calls for a radical re-examination of all the 'previously sanctioned systems of cognition, histriography, metaphysics, science, and poetics' in a fresh new light. His lifelong endeavors, philosophical and literary, may be said to be a de-sanctioning activity of every sort of sanctioned systems. Eliot's first and foremost endeavor of desanctioning activity is launched against the traditional Western metaphysics of logocentrism, the recent origin of which may be traced back to the Cartesian concepts of 'I', 'mind', and 'consciousness'. According to Eliot's various philosophical writings, Cartesian concepts such as 'I', 'mind', and 'consciousness' are very fragile and precarious-and even volatile-because these are no more a stable and immutable, hence metaphysical, substance than a shadow is. Eliot presupposes, and argues, that these are nothing but those which are constructed by the communal necessities, ideological doctrines, and other prevailing cultural forces. And the major device employed in this constructiong processes, of course, is language which is itself nothing but a construction dominated by the above-mentioned elements. In Eliot's epistemology, therefore, society and/or culture constructs language, and language in turn constructs society and/or culture, and both of these build up and dominate the (concepts of) 'I', 'mind', and 'consciousness'. Thus Eliot says that without language there exists no object, adding that the reality of object depends upon-and only exists in-relations. The same is true of the 'I', 'mind', and 'consciousness'. These are all relational constructions. Anything dependent on other(s), that is, anything conditioned has no substance of its own(-nature) : it simply is not something metaphysical. Here, the possibility of metaphysics it radically denied. This kind of epistemology does not permit the possibility of any stable knowledge that is, and has been, desperately sought after by science and metaphysics. Eliot's epistemological workings are a little giant revolution against the Western tradition of metaphysics. According to Eliot's epistemological thinking, metaphysics is only 'a study of working fiction.' However, why do so many literary critics-and even philosophers-are and have been anxious to find such possibility in Eliot? It may not be their faults : it is Eliot himself who invites/tempts them to do so-expecially in his literary discourses. When he compares, for instance, the poet's mind to a catalyzing medium, and when he quotes as an epigraph in one of his very important essays a line from Aristotle's De Anima that reads like 'something divine, unimpressionable, and unaffected', he surely seems to be encouraging such attempts. This kinds of references have led so many to hail/denounce Eliot as the champion of 'congnitive theism', the preserver of 'the traditional humanist values'. However, Eliot is neither so clear, nor so simplistic in his thinking/writing : he has a double-edged sword that sometimes undercuts the branch of a tree on which he is sitting. He is sort of a double talker, consciously and/or unconsciously. This essay will propose a (re-)reading strategy that is focused on this very double-talking and thus deceiving aspect of Eliot's and the related literary/philosophical problematics.
이 연구에서는 해산 연체동물의 폐사를 유발하는 기생성 원생동물인 Perkinsus를 신속하고 특이적으로 검출하기 위하여 PCR진단법을 개발하였다. 이를 위해 Perkinsus속 4종을 공통적으로 증폭하거나 P. atlanfi-cus만을 특이적으로 증폭할 수 있는 두 가지의 primer 를 제작 하였다. PCR분석은 기존 Perkinsus진단법인 fluid thioglycollate medium (FTM) 방법과 2M NaOH 기법을 병행하여 실시하였다. 실험구로서 전라남도 완도산, 제주도 김녕산, 제주도 서귀포산, 제주도 성산산 바지락과 in vitro 배양된 바지락포자충이 이용되었으며, 대조구로서 전라남도 강진에서 채집된 꼬막, T, gronosa을 사용하였다. 실험 결과 Perkinsus 특이성 DNA band가 전남 완도산과 제주도 성산산 바지락, in vitro 배양된 바지락포자충에서 확인되었으나, 대조구였던 꼬막과 제주도 서귀포산, 제주도 김녕산 바지락에서는 나타나지 않았다. 이 같은 진단 결과는 FTM과 2M NaOH진단 결과와 일치하였다. 한편 P. atlanticus에 특이적인 primer에 의해 증폭된 band가 확인됨에 따라 국내산 바지락에서 검출되는 바지락포자충은 P. atlanticus와 동일 종 임이 확인되었다. 결론적으로, 본 연구를 통하여 개발된 PCR을 이용한 진단법은 해산 연체동물내 Perkinsus 속 기생충과 P. atlanticus의 감염을 신속하고도 종 특이적으로 진단할 수 있어 수·출입 수산물의 검역과 바지락 포자충의 생태학적 특성을 규명하는데 효과적으로 이용 될 수 있을 것으로 기대된다. Detection of protozoan parasites Perkinsus sp. and P. atlanticus was developed in this study using a specific polymerase chain reaction(PCR) to diagnose the presence of those organisms that causes extensive mortalities of marine shellfishes. The PCR was conducted together with fluid thioglycollate medium(FTM) method and 2 M NaOH lysis method. For the test, Manila clams, Ruditapes philippinarum, were collected from four coastal locations in Korea including Wando Island, Gimnyeong, Sungsan and Sogwipo in Jeju. In addition, trophozites of Perkinsus sp. cultivated in vitro and the granular ark clam, Tegillarca granosa, taken from Gangjin on the south coast of Korea, were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. Expected DNA bands were detected in the samples from Wando Island, Sungsan and the in vitro cultured Perkinsus sp. when the probes specific for the genus Perkinsus and P. atlanticus were used. The samples were also positively diagnosed by the FTM and 2 M NaOH methods. In contrast, the Manila clams from Gimnyeong and Sogwipo, and the granular arks clams from Gangjin showed no detectable signs of infection with the PCR, the FTM method and the 2 M NaOH lysis method. On the other hand, being amplified by P. atlanticus specific primer, it is suggested that the protozoan parasite Perkinsus sp. found in the Korean Manila clam is P. atlanticus. Finally the PCR-based assay developed in the present study can be used in detection of Perkinsus infection and discrimination of Perkinsus species in quarantine stations or laboratories due to the high sensitivity and specificity as well as its rapid detection.
Background and Objectives: Left ventricular (LV) midwall fractional shortening (FSmw) reflects systolic function more accurately than LV endocardial fractional shortening (eFS) in patients with increased LV wall thickness. Although the normal reference ranges of LV-FSmw have been suggested in Western population studies, its reference values and age-related physiological changes in Eastern populations remain unknown. Subjects and Methods: Conventional echocardiographic parameters, LV-FSmw, and stress-corrected LV-FSmw were assessed in 160 healthy and clinically normal subjects with a mean age of 45 (range, 11-72 years; 104 males, 56 women), all of whom were confirmed to be free of disease, based on laboratory investigations, clinical and physical examination findings and computed tomographic coronary angiographic examinations. Results: LV-FSmw was higher in women compared to men. However, the differences were without statistical significance (18.2±1.5% for male gender and 19.4±2.5% for female gender, p=0.07). In contrast to LV-eFS that progressively increased with age (p=0.001), LV-FSmw and stress-corrected LV-FSmw was not influenced by changes in age (p=0.88 and 0.29, respectively). The results remained unchanged when analyses were performed adjusting for gender. Conclusion: The results of this study provide normal reference values for LV-FSmw and stress-corrected LV-FSmw and their natural physiological changes with advancing age. These measures can be used as reference standards for research on LV systolic function in the setting of pressure or volume overload.
Professor David R. McCann's translation of Korean Modernist poet Yun Dong-ju’s poetry, especially “Self-Portrait”, this paper argues, fails to represent in English the original and/or authorial meanings and emotions innate in the poems which are supposed to be metaphorized and formalized in various poetic forms he adopts. As Walter Benjamin argues in his essay “The Task of Translator”, to translate a poem is to represent the form of the source text most nearly into the target language, as a poem is a form. This paper argues that this kind of mal-translation derives mainly from the translator's personal mis-/interpretation which should be put under the tests of the scientific community related and the translating partners consisted of Korean Yun Dong-ju scholars, English Literature scholars, translation specialists, and native English translators well versed in Korean Literature as well English Literature. This paper names this kind of collaboration “the Wikinomics of translation” or “the translation community”. Personal mis-/interpretation falsifies, as it is argued by the Modernist poet-critic T.S. Eliot in his impersonal theory of poetry or his philosophical impersonalism, and so a desirable correct translation could be achieved by inter-personal and interdisciplinary community of interpretation and translation.
본 연구에서는 분자마커를 이용한 목표형질분리의 효용성을 검토하였다. Ivory seed(IVS) 유전자는 bHLH 단백질을 암호화하고 있고, 꽃의 안토시아닌과 종자의 프로안토시아닌의 발현에 관여하는 애기장대의 TT8 및 페튜니아의 AN1유전자와 상동성을 가지는 유 전자로 나팔꽃의 꽃과 종자의 착색을 촉진하는 것으로 알려져 있다. 아이보리 종자로부터 화색이 full purple(FP), pale purple(PP), magenta(M) 및 pale red(PR)인 4가지 계통의 식물체가 분리되었다. 분자분 석을 통해 이 식물체 모두 ivs 유전자의 변이형질을 지니는 것으로 확인되었다. 분자마커 선발을 위해 고안 된 프라이머를 사용하여 IVS 유전자의 exon 2와 intron 5 영역을 증폭하여, ivs 대립형질인 ivs-stb 및 ivs-pwt을 야생형 IVS로부터 구분할 수 있었다. PCR 결과로 예측한 IVS 유전자의 대립형질 구성 상태는 Southern blot 분석 결과와 정확하게 일치하였다. PP 와 PR은 ivs-stb에 의한 열성 변이체였으며, M과 FP 계통은 ivs-stb 대립형질에 더하여 각각 야생형 IVS 및 ivs-pwt와의 이형접합체로 확인되었다. 본 연구에서 선발된 분자마커는 IVS 유전자의 대립형질 구분에 매 우 유용하였다. In this study, efficiency of molecular markers in allelic separation was elucidated. The ivoryseed (IVS) gene, which encodes a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) protein and is homologous to Arabidopsis transparent testa 8 (TT8) and petunia anthocyanin 1 (AN1) that are involved in expression of anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin, was known to activates pigmentation in both flowers and seeds of morning glory species. Four plant lines, of which flowers displayed full purple (FP), pale purple (PP), magenta (M) and pale red (PR) color, respectively, were isolated from ivory seeds. Molecular analyses showed that all these 4 lines bear a certain ivs mutant allele. Two ivs alleles, ivs-stb and ivs-pwt with wild type allele could be distinguished by amplification of the second exon and the fifth intron regions using primers devised for selection of molecular marker. Allelic constitution at the IVS locus predicted from PCR analysis were exactly identical to those from Southern blot analysis: PP and PR lines were recessive mutants caused by the ivs-stb allele, and M and FP lines harboring the ivs-stb allele were heterozygote with the wild type IVS and the ivspwt alleles, respectively. Molecular markers developed here were very useful for allelic identification between the IVS alleles.
List of courses taken by Eliot while at Harvard shows his wide-ranging interests in humanities and comparative studies: English, German, French, Latin, and Greek Literatures, four courses of Comparative Literature, five courses of Indic Philology , History, Government, Fine Arts, Ethics, Experimental Psychology, and other graduate courses of Philosophy Department. Eliot's Harvard years reveal, as Manju Jain suggests, "the genesis of his major literary, religious and intellectual preoccupations in his early work as a student of philosophy" and "its influence on his poetic and critical practice", though he abandoned philosopher's career for poetry. Josiah Royce's Seminar, 1913-1914, Eliot attended seems to have formed Eliot's catholicity of interests in human sciences and knowledges in general. Royce's Seminary in Logic (Philosophy 20c. Subject for the year: a comparative study of various types of scientific method) "commanded a scale of subject matter ranging from mathematics to epistemology and from biology to ethics". It was "a veritable clearinghouse of science", as Richard Hocking recalls, in which "[m]en of widely different training and techinique" --chemist, physiologist, psychologist, pathologist, embryologist/histologist, statistician, math matician, archaeologist, economist/industrialist, and experts on English literature and fine arts-- "who could not understand one another, were here interpreted to one another by Royce, who understood them all". It was a community of scholars, a community of interpretation, initiated by C.S. Peirce, the founding father of American Pragmatism and Semiotics and succeeded by Royce, to be found no where in the world at the time. Eliot seems to retain some traces of this Peircean/Roycean clearinghouse of humanities in his philosophical, poetic/critical, and other (jounalistic) career. As is commonly noted, one striking feature of Eliot's intellectual developments is his syncretic and eclectic-thus relativist--attitude which absorbs and synthesizes all things into an organic whole. The Waste Land well attests this when in this long poem of 433 lines Eliot cites, alludes to, parodies and/or adapts 35 writers, works, and other literatures, making a literary collage out of them. It should also be noted in Eliot's intellectual activities that from 1922 to 1939 Eliot worked as editor for a quarterly literary magazine, The Criterion, and wrote twenty-one review articles on sixty-one books of various subjects: language, literature, history, anthropology, civilization, religion, theology, philosophy, psychology, science, politics, sociology, dance, etc., and that during that period he commented on various everyday public affairs. These articles, reflecting Eliot's wide-ranging concerns in general humanities, might shed new lights on Eliot studies, opening the way for an ex- tensive comparative studies. In one of his seminal critical essays Eliot wrote: "No poet, no artist of any art has his complete meaning alone. His significance, his appreciation is the appreciation of his relation to the dead poets and artists. You cannot value him alone; you must set him, for contrast and comparison, among the dead." Eliot declared this to be "a principle of aesthetic, not merely historical, criticism." This principle of impersonality also coincides with his another poetic/critical theory of unified sensibility: To a sensitive poet, Eliot said, a thought is an experience and it modifies his sensibility. A poet's mind, "when perfectly equipped for its work", constantly amalgamates disparate experience. In the mind of a poet numerous experiences "are always forming new wholes". Eliot's poetics might be summed up as one of relation/contrast/comparison, which has been commonly called impersonal theory of poetry. All these features make Eliot the sources and resources of humanities and comparative studies which ambitious challenging scholars cannot turn their back to. Eliot studies indeed point to the possibilities/necessities of wide-ranging inter-disciplinary cooperative and/or comparative work between different humanities that might have been incorporated into his literary works.