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The purpose of this study is to grasp the chracteristics and the meaning of Korean poets' works which were written in Japanese in Japan in the 1920's. Most of these poets were studying abroad in Japan at that time, and announced a great number of poems in Japanese literary circles. Jung, Ji-yong was one of them, announced lots of poems on <Modern Landscape>(근대풍경). He was an imagist poet who accepted the European modernism by means of the understanding of Japanease literature and English literature. His poems could be divided by two parts on the basis of the relations of his Korean poems. The first part was poems written by JApanese again based on his former Korean poems, and so could not have fully it's originality. But the second part was poems which we could not find the same sort of poems in the list of his Korean poetry. So it could have an orginality by itself as such. These poems did not express directly a thought or an emotion, but figurated sensitively it by means of the image of objective things. Because he accepted the imagism, and intended to write a modern poetry by new writting skills according to the influences of Japanese imagist poets, such as Kitahara Hakyusu(화원백추). As the result, these poems could extend his poetic world, and made a catalytic action in the development of his Korean poetry. But his poems did not show the historical reality of those days. It leaves something to be desired in this point. Kim, Hee-mung, who was involved in the NAPF in Japan, was a poet that we could say he had been being on the opposite side of Jung, Ji-yong. Although we could not know well his personal history, most of his poems were works inspiring the struggle consciousness of the proletariat. Especially <the sadness of a foreign country>(이방애수) of them was a narrative poem telling a tragic story that a Korean labore had experienced the bitterness of national discrimination in Japan. With this work, one of Kim, Byung-ho's poems, <I am a Korean> expressed the sorrowful life of Korean wandering people and immigrants in Japan under the rule of Japanese imperialism. I could ascertain the national identity of Korean poets' poems in Japanese by these poems.
This study is to grasp the meaning and the characteristics of Korean poets' poems which were written in Japanese in Japan in the 1930's, For this, I first examined works of Baek, Cheol and Kim, Yong-jae who were actively engaged in Japanese leftist literary circles and published so many pieces of proletarian poetry. Next I exaamined Ju, Yeung-seob and others' poems which had the contrast characteristics against the former. Baek, Cheol became a member of Japanese vanguard poets' group and after was engaged in NAPF with Kim, Yong-jae in the early of 1930's. Most of his poems in Japanese were the works of narrative poetry which described the concrete facts of Korean life in the colonial period. In this point, I can insist that his poems have the poetic reality and the national identity even if they have the leftist inclinations of Marxism and the boundary of Japanese language usage. What is specially noteworthy once more is that he wrote a new poetic form named 'Shufreih-Call' which was a sort of dramatic poems. It showed us a possibility that could overcome the weakness of a proletarian poetry. Kim, Yong-jae played an important role in Japanese leftist literary group called NAPF and NALUP, and published proletarian poems more than 30 pieces. His poems have many points of likeness to Baek, Cheol's, but express the socialism of a class strugle more strongly than Baek, Cheol's. Nevertheless his poems as like 〈the Strait of Korea〉, 〈the border〉, 〈My lovely continent〉, and 〈Arirang of spring〉 expressed very impressively the poetic reality and the national identity. On the other hand, Ju, Yeung-seob and some others' poems, which were published in the latter of the 1930's, showed us very contrast features against Baek and Kim's. Their poems glorified the civilization of science, or meditated the nature, or distorted and caricatured the reality of life. So they lost not only the poetic reality but also their national identity. Of course, we need to consider that these poems were published under the very oppressive measure on public opinion at that time.
Recently, indoor air quality(IAQ) is one of the greatest problems in our modern societies. Although research for IAQ is made rapid progress but IAQ problems concerning indoor microorganism contamination is required to be studied still more. So we have investigated the indoor microorganism concentration of a variety of department store, subway station, underground shopping center, kindergartens, library where people complain about the indoor air quality. The experiment on microorganism concentration of indoor air was carried out and the average of total microorganisms was measured. Comparing the experimental results with existing foreign criterion, the experimental results show that the ministry of environment recommendation microorganism concentration value(800CFU/m3) is in need of revision in the near future.
It is well known that after removal of one cerebral hemisphere all experimental animals, such as monkeys, dogs, cats and rabbits, circle in walking toward the side of the lesion with deviation of bead and eves to the same side for a while. However, the cause of circling gait following cerebral hemispherectomy is not clearly established. In this experiments physiological phenomena were observed in the dog and rabbit following unilateral or bilateral frontal or occipital lobectomies or partial ablations, parietal lobe lesions, section of unilateral optic nerve or optic tract. The results were as follows: 1) All experimental animals circled in walking toward the side of lesion with deviation of head and eyes to the same side for about one week following unilateral frontal lobectomy of partial ablation. There were transient motor weakness for a few days and pseudohemianopsia for about one week on the contralateral side. 2) Bilateral frontal lobectomies did not induce circling gait. But there was a lack of response to visual stimuli for a week. 3) Unilateral parietal lobe ablation did not induce circling gait nor pseudohemianopsia. 4) All experimental animals circled in walking toward the occipital lobectomized side for about 2 or 3 weeks, but deviation of head and eyes toward the side of lesion was not so evident as frontal lobectomized animals. The permanent neurological deficit was contralateral hemianopsia. 5) Bilateral occipital lobectomies was followed by a blindness in all experimental animals. They walked without a definite direction. 6) Section of unilateral optic nerve induced ipsilateral blindness. All experimental animals showed a tendency to walk toward the opposite side but did not circle in walking. 7) Section of unilateral optic tract induced permanent contralateral hemianopsia. All experimetal animals circled in walking toward the side of the lesion for a while but deviation of the head was not evident. It is our conclusion that transient circling gait following cerebral hesmispherectomy may be attributed by the permanent and transient hemianopsia and some neurological functional imbalance between the removed cerebral hemisphere, and the intact opposite cerebral hemisphere and brain stem.
This study is an attempt to investigate the life and thought of Jeanne d’Albret, the leader and patroness of Huguenots as the queen of the 16th century Navarre and Béarn. I follow the life of Jeanne d’Albret and see how she opposed her unwilling marriage despite only being 12-years-old, how she was converted to Protestantism in 1560 at Christmas. I will also trace what kind of Protestant Reformation was promoted through the ecclesiastical ordinances in the Navarre and Béarn, and why Jeanne went to La Rochelle, and what role she played in the city. This study will enable us to identify her role in her relatively unknown life and the 16th century Reformation movement. Then, I will identify her own identity as a Protestant by analyzing the contents of the letters of Jeanne d’Albret, and the Ample Declaration which explains the historical background of the letters in detail. Through this study, I want to reveal that the 16th century Reformation was never the only thing for men, and that there was a struggle for women who lived a flame life for the church reform with all of their own. Despite the fact that the role of women in the history of the Reformation is not small, there has been a lack of research on this topic. I hope that this study on Jeanne d’Albert, the queen of the 16th century Huguenots, is to stimulate the study of the history of the Reformation in a variety of perspectives in the future and also to understand the Reformation in a more balanced way. 본 연구는 16세기 나바라와 베아른의 여왕으로서 위그노의 지도자요 보호자 였던 잔 달브레의 삶과 사상을 규명하려는 시도이다. 필자는 잔 달브레의 생애를 따라 가면서 그녀가 12살의 어린 나이에도 불구하고 자신이 원하지 않는 정략결 혼에 어떻게 반대했는지, 어떤 과정을 거쳐 1560년 성탄절에 프로테스탄트로 회심했는지, 자신이 통치한 베아른과 나바라 지역에서 반포한 교회법령을 통해 어떤 내용의 프로테스탄트 종교개혁을 추진했는지, 왜 라로셸로 가서 위그노의 지도자로 활동하게 되었는지 그리고 그곳에서 그녀가 어떤 역할을 수행했는지를 추적할 것이다. 이를 통해 우리는 비교적 알려지지 않은 그녀의 생애와 16세기 종교 개혁 운동에 있어서 그녀의 역할을 확인할 수 있게 될 것이다. 이어서 잔이 남긴 『편지』와 그 편지의 역사적 배경을 자세하게 소개한 『충분한 설명』의 내용을 분석하면서 그녀의 프로테스탄트로서의 자기정체성을 규명할 것이다. 본 연구를 통해 16세기 종교개혁이 결코 남성들만의 전유물이 아니었으며, 자신의 모든 것을 걸고 교회개혁을 위해 불꽃같은 삶을 살았던 여성의 분투가 있었음이 드러나길 원한다. 사실 종교개혁 역사에서 여성의 역할이 작지 않음에도 불구하고 그동안 이 분야에 대한 연구는 턱없이 부족하였다. 16세기 위그노 여왕 이었던 잔 달브레에 관한 연구가 앞으로 보다 다양한 관점에서 종교개혁 역사를 연구하도록 자극하고, 또한 보다 균형 잡힌 시각으로 종교개혁을 이해하도록 하는 데 작은 도움이 되길 기대해 본다.
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The Japanese colonial rule of Japan at the Showa reign was getting systemized in an almanac closest to the people’s real life. This led to the remodeling of the body after the mental reconstruction. Finally, they tried to make it a fundamental device for the total mobilization of colonial Korean people. This national purpose was embedded in the covers, introductory notes, main texts, and the appendix of the almanac, and it became the foundation of colonial management. The introduction part shows the aspect of mental reconstruction for Japanization by arranging various image materials and reliefs at appropriate places. The main text and the appendix were also used as devices for body modification by describing the matters to execute according to policy change for the purpose of humanization of Korea (Chosun) and Koreans as advance base for continental advancement. Indeed, the efficient operation of the almanac is considered to be an important factor in determining the success or failure of colonial management. This is because it looks every day at the beginning of the day. For this reason, the Japanese imperialists imposed the ideology of colonial rule on almanacs. They also imposed a colonial policy that was changed and strengthened according to the situation on each side (page) of the almanac.