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본 연구는 초등학생의 사회성 향상을 위해서 사회적 기술 훈련 프로그램을 개발하고, 그 효과를 검증하는 것을 목적으로 하였다. 이를 위해서 사회적 기술 척도 및 사회적 기술 훈련 프로그램과 관련된 선행연구의 고찰을 통해서 자기주장, 자기억제, 공감, 적극성, 이타성의 다섯 가지 사회적 기술을 중점적으로 훈련시킬 내용으로 선정하였으며, 초등학교에서 학급단위로 적용할 수 있는 교수 학습 방법을 개발하였다. 실험집단으로는 초등학교 4, 5학년 각각 1개 학급 총 62명(남자 37명, 여자 25명)을 대상으로 실시하였으며, 통제집단 역시 학년별 동일한 학급수로 편성하여 총 62명(남자 33명, 여자 29명)을 대상으로 하였다. 실시 기간은 1주일에 1-2회씩 8주 동안 총 12회기에 걸쳐 실시되었으며, 각 회기에 지속시간은 40분이다. 수집한 자료는 평균, 표준편차, 이원변량공분산분석(ANCOVA)을 이용하여 분석하였다. 연구 결과는 본 연구에서 개발한 초등학생의 사회성 향상을 위한 사회적 기술 훈련 프로그램은 초등학생의 사회성을 향상시키는데 효과적인 것으로 나타났다. 즉, 본 프로그램에 참여한 아동이 참여하지 않은 아동보다 자기주장, 공감, 이타성, 적극성, 자기억제의 사회적 기술이 향상되었다. The present study focused upon attempts to develop the Social Skills Training Program to enhance students sociability and to examine the effects of the program. The developed program used several kinds of interaction methods such as instruction, modeling, rehearsal, feedback, and positive reinforcement. The contents of the program consisted of social skills based on specific social situations such as self-assert, self-control, empathy, positive communication and altruism. The subjects of this study were 124 Korean students(Male: 70, Female: 54) in Pohang of grades 4 to 5 in an elementary school. 62 students were assigned to the control group and 62 students were assigned to the experimental group. The experimental group received the social training program for 40 minutes per day twice a week during 12 sessions, and the control group received no treatment. Several ANCOVAs were performed for data analyses. The results of the analyses indicated that the Social Skills Training Program for Students Sociability Improvement was effective in enhancing their students sociability. The findings will provide a guideline for teachers to understand what is important in students social development and how to utilize effective methods for improving students sociability. « Key Words : social skills, social skills training program, the creative experience activities
본 연구는 한국과 일본 초등학생의 대인관계에서의 행동 특성을 비교 분석하는 것을 목적으로 하였다. 이를 위해서 한국과 일본의 문화적 성향에 기초한 친애적 배려적 상호협조 척도를 개발하여 양국의 초등학생을 대상으로 비교 분석하였다. 또한 친애적 배려적 상호협조 척도와 사회적 기술 척도와의 관련성을 검토하였다. 이는 친애적 배려적 상호협조 척도의 성격을 명확하게 하고자 한 것이었다. 조사를 위해서 한국은 청주시 및 포항시에 소재하는 2개 초등학생 345명(남자 176명, 여자 169명)을 대상으로 하였으며, 일본은 고베시와 오사카시에 소재하는 초등학생 348명(남자 166명, 여자 182명)을 대상으로 하였다. 본 연구 결과는 다음과 같았다. 첫째, 한국의 초등학생은 일본의 초등학생보다 대인관계 행동 중에서 적극적 관여와 민감성의 행동을 보다 많이 하였다. 둘째, 일본의 초등학생은 한국의 초등학생보다 대인관계 행동 중에서 상대 배려의 행동을 보다 많이 하였다. 셋째, 한국의 초등학생은 일본의 초등학생보다 자기주장, 공감, 적극성의 사회적 기술이 높았다. 넷째, 친애적 배려적 상호협조 척도는 사회적 기술 척도와 밀접한 관련성이 있었다. 특히, 친애적 배려적 상호협조 척도의 적극적 관여 행동은 사회적 기술의 자기주장, 공감, 적극성 행동과 높은 관련성을 나타냈으며, 친애적 배려적 상호협조 척도의 상대배려 행동은 사회적 기술의 자기억제와 높은 관련성을 나타냈었다. The purpose of this research is to conduct a comparative analysis on behavioral characteristics in interpersonal relationships in Korea and Japan. To achieve this, I first developed the affectionate and considerate interdependence criteria for elementary students that can measure the interpersonal relationship behavioral characteristics of elementary students in Korea and Japan. And I also examined the correlations with social skill that is considered to have correlate on the interpersonal relationship behaviors in Korea and Japan. The survey was conducted among 345 Korean students(Male: 176, Female: 169) and 348 Japanese students(Male: 166, Female: 182). The results showed that Korea was found to be statistically significantly higher in the factors of ``sensibility`` and ``participation`` than Japan, and Japan was found to be statistically significantly higher in the factor of ``consideration`` than Korea. And it was also found that the affectionate and considerate interdependence criteria was related to the factors of the social skill criteria.
Some improvements in education can be brought about by spending more money, by building better schools, and by introducing new curriculum, new standards, or new equipment. But the really important changes will come about only as faculty members change. But, the in-service education of new faculty members of university of education should reflect new and diverse needs of members toward its operation, and changes inside/outside of educational society, such as the development of educational knowledge and skills, the introduction of autonomy system in university governance, and the re-organization of curricular, etc. Through a comprehensive analysis of the problems, needs, and situational changes related to in-service education of new faculty members of university of education, this study is to search for desirable policy measures for in-service education of new faculty members of university of education. Specific research problems for this study were as follows: 1) What is the theoretical basis of in-service education of new faculty members of university? 2) What are the current status and problems of in-service education of new faculty members of university? 3) What are the development tendencies of in-service education of new faculty members of university? 4) What are the desirable policy measures of our in-service education of new faculty members of university? The research methods used in this study were analyzing and reviewing literature related to in-service education of new faculty members of university, and suggest a in-service education program for new faculty members. With reward to effective performing the policy measures and program above, several recommendations were presented. 1) Each university, and there in-service education of new faculty members institute should establish long-term and short-term plans for the expansion of in-service education opportunity for their new faculty members. 2) The accreditation boards of in-service education programs for new faculty members of university should be organized and operated effectively at the level of each university, local and nationwide. 3) For discussing and exchanging useful information/experiences over in-service education of new faculty members of university, special in-service education conference organization should be organized. 4) The laws related to in-service education of new faculty members should be revised on the above policy measures.
Roles are learned through experience, and once they are formed, roles will affect the behaviors of those who perceived them in predictable ways. But teachers characteristically do a great many things, many different lists of functions have been suggested for the teacher's role, and behavioral evidence concerning these functional distinctions is hard to find. And the teacher's role varies somewhat depending on the grade level of the school. Accordingly, the purpose of the present research was to suggest the functional role category of elementary school teachers, in order to help prospective and inservice teachers understanding their roles, and it is of vital importance to those engaged in preparing teacher for designing programs concerning teacher education. For this purpose, the present research was performed through : first, to clarify the concepts of role and teacher role, second, to categorize the functional roles of teachers, third, to review the unique characteristics of elementary education, and then they are reflected in the functional role category of teachers in order to make up the functional role category of elementary school teachers. In carrying out forward this research, the existing literatures and research papers related to this subject were used. The findings derived from this research were as follows ; 1. The functional role category of elementary school teachers are largely divided into two aspects ; one is instructional role set which referring the implementation area of curriculum, the other is facilitative role set which referring the facilitation area of curriculum implementation. 2. There are role of guide for learning, role of guidance and counseling, and role of guide for extra-curricular activities which included in the instructional role set of elementary school teachers. 3. There are role of classroom management, role of participation in grade and school management, and role of linker between school and community which included in the facilitative role set of elementary school teachers. 4. Because the facilitative role set of teachers are common factors for all grade and school levels, the unique characteristics of elementary education should be reflected in the instructional role set of elementary school teachers. 5. The content elements which should be stressed in the role of guide for learning of elementary school teachers are as follows : the shaping of basic learning habit, the guide of learning how to learn, basic culture education, national identity education, the shaping of cultural values, the education of basic 3Rs, the shaping of responsibility as a nation, basic concepts development which needed in daily life, facilitate the shaping of preservation and reversibility concepts, the cultivation of logical thinking, the extension of creative expression, the cultivation of scientific inquiry power. 6. The content elements which should be stressed in the role of guidance and counseling of elementary school teachers are as follows ; the shaping of attitude which is related to basic living and the cultivation of basic living skills, the development of problem solving skills, the inspiration of equality mind, the acquisition of basic physical skills, the shaping of sound attitude toward one's own self(positive self-concepts), the shaping of smooth human-relationship, the cultivation of conscience and morality, the facilitation of personal self-reliance, the internalization of traditional courtesy, the recognition of social role across sex, wise consumer education, the guide of safety life. 7. The content elements which should be stressed in the role of guide for extra-curricular activities of elementary school teachers are as follows ; the adjustment for school life, the discovery and expansion of individuality and character, the expansion of interest and make good use of leisure time(included the guide of play), the cultivation of partnership and service mind for group development.
This purpose of the study was to examine the effect of internal-external control and sex-role identities on their career maturity of elementary school children. The subjects in this study were 200 selected six graders who included 100 children from an elementary school in the city of Geoje and 100 from an elementary school in Goseong-gun, South Kyongsang province. The findings of this study could be described as below: First, In regard to the gender-based career maturity discrepancies, gender made no difference to their career choice and career attitude. Second, as a result of investigating whether the career maturity was affected by the internal-external control, the internal-control group was better at total career capability and total career maturity as well. Third, as a result of examining whether the career maturity was influenced by the sex-role identities, the children whose sex-role identities were undifferentiated or androgynous were more dependent than the others. The findings of this study suggest that in order to enhance the career maturity of elementary school children, gender characteristics should be taken into account in developing career-education programs. In addition, there should be a variety of efforts to help children cultivate internal control and androgynous identities.