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This study develops numerical model of mega composite columns in fire and investigates the residual areas below 500℃ after 3 hours. In order to perform heat transfer analysis, thermal properties of steels and concrete were adopted from Eurocodes. In addition to, the temperature distributions of composite columns with respect to fire tests were compared with numerical analysis results. As a result, the residual areas below 500℃ of mega composite columns were evaluated.
Geographical knowledge not only preceded but it also motivated, regulated, and dominated all other modern knowledge China had to acquire during it`s struggle to transform itself into a youthful modern nation. `Daluzhi jingwu`(大陸之景物; Scenery of the World) section of the Tuhuaribao(圖畵日報, 1909~1910) might well be seen as visual practice related to `geographical imagination` of the times. Pictures of world`s renowned places `Daluzhi jingwu` section presents are most likely reproductions of photographic images produced in the West, which will also apply to most of those that show Chinese places and landscapes. Images of spots in Shanghai or places worth noticing nearby the modern city seem to have been produced based on original sketches since the media was Shanghai based, but nevertheless the mode of representation was oriented towards modern-western photographic representation. Thus the mode of visual representation adopted by the `Daluzhi jingwu` section in itself suggests inevitable presence of the Western point of view. Visual images of places of the world that `Daluzhi jingwu` section presented, compared to those of former late Qing pictorials, were more accurate, or photographic in representing forms, and as a result emphasized the differences in places and spaces. `Daluzhi jingwu` in general divides the world into two contradicting spaces, one which is oriented by modern functions and values, another which is of exotic landscape. It is not difficult to discover here the Orientalist`s gaze that had been consolidated passing the 19<sup>th</sup> century, golden age of European colonialism, or deep rooted dichotomy of modern-western geography. A sense of sharp comparison between the West and China, always accompanied the ardor for strong and wealthy Chinese nation, both of which evidently were inherent in the process of choosing the places to be shown in `Daluzhi jingwu`. Although traces of traditional mode of visual representation still apparent when showing Chinese scenery could be interpreted as instances of resistance, internalization of the dominant gaze of the West is obvious in the case of `Daluzhi jingwu`.
In this essay I have discussed the place of visual representations in the modern knowledge system of China which was being formed in early 20th century. I have argued that Xinmin Congbao(新民叢報), the journal that dominated the Tokyo-Shanghai network of reform movement and played critical role in dissemination of ‘new’, ‘western’ knowledge and thinking in the first few years of the 20th century, also held the key to the door leading to the visual realm of the West. Portraits of political leaders of Western nations and of renowned thinkers and scientists of modern era not only set new standards of visual representation by showing new dimensions of how a person could be ‘portrayed’, it also helped the reception process of foreign concepts and ideas by relating it to and giving it concrete visual forms. The ‘Great faces’ which were to be looked upon were quickly replaced. Long tradition of portraying the Confucius ideals were soon to be forgotten. As the visual ‘enlightenment’ gave light to alien faces and new ideals, familiar images became remote and strange. Just as it was simply impossible even to remember how things were thought before the great Tsunami of Modern concepts and ideas swept through.
Adversarial attack, which geneartes adversarial data to make target model misclassify the input data, is able to confusereal life applications of classification models and cause severe damage to the classification system. An Black-box adversarialattack learns a substitute model, which have similar decision boundary to the target model, and then generates adversarialdata with the substitute model. Jacobian-based data augmentation is used to synthesize the training data to learn substitutes,but has a drawback that the data synthesized by the augmentation get distorted more and more as the training loopproceeds. We suggest data augmentation with 'decay factor' to alleviate this problem. The result shows that attack successrate of our method is higher(around 8.5%) than the existing method. 적대적 공격은 기계학습 분류 모델의 오분류를 유도하는 적대적 데이터를 생성하는 공격으로, 실생활에 적용된 분류 모델에 혼란을 야기하여 심각한 피해를 발생시킬 수 있다. 이러한 적대적 공격 중 블랙박스 방식의 공격은, 대상모델과 유사한 대체 모델을 학습시켜 대체 모델을 이용해 적대적 데이터를 생성하는 공격 방식이다. 이 때 사용되는야코비 행렬 기반의 데이터 어그멘테이션 기법은 합성되는 데이터의 왜곡이 심해진다는 단점이 있다. 본 논문은 기존의 데이터 어그멘테이션 방식에 존재하는 단점을 보완하기 위해 감쇠 요소를 추가한 데이터 어그멘테이션을 사용하여대체 모델을 학습시키고, 이를 이용해 적대적 데이터를 생성하는 방안을 제안한다. 실험을 통해, 기존의 연구 결과보다 공격 성공률이 최대 8.5% 가량 높음을 입증하였다.
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Purpose: To assess the effectiveness and safety of Pattern Laser Trabeculoplasty (PLT) in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and normal tension glaucoma (NTG). Methods: Twenty-six eyes in patients with POAG and 14 eyes in patients with NTG were targeted in this study. The intraocular pressure (IOP) for each patient needed to be reduced within proper ranges. The clinical outcome was assessed by IOP at 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, 6 months and 9 months after PLT. Results: The mean (± standard deviation) IOP in the POAG group was 20.7 ± 4.1 mm Hg before treatment. After PLT, the IOPs in POAG group were 16.4 ± 3.1 mm Hg, 16.9 ± 3.8 mm Hg, and 16.5 ± 5.2 mm Hg at 1, 6 and 9 months, respectively, and the pressure remained stabled over 9 months of post-procedural follow-up. However, no statistical difference in IOP reduction was observed in the NTG group before and after treatment. Conclusions: PLT provides a possibility to decrease additional medical therapy in patients with POAG. In addition, PLT can be considered as an auxiliary therapy for POAG patients who tolerate maximal medical therapy prior to undergoing surgical treatment. J Korean Ophthalmol Soc 2013;54(12):1862-1867