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Background: Although therapeutic plasmapheresis (TP) is a useful procedure in removing pathogenic antibodies and toxic substances from the patient, adverse reactions could arise from the use of replacement fluids and anticoagulants. Comprehensive analysis on those adverse effects had been rarely reported in Korea. Methods: We retrospectively investigated the clinical records and the TP records from 3,962 TP sessions for 581 patients between January 1995 and October 2008 at Asan Medical Center, and we analyzed the adverse reactions related to TP. Results: Adverse reactions were seen in 142 patients (24.4%) in 348 TP procedures (8.8%). Citrate toxicity was most frequently seen in 83 procedures (23.9%) followed by chills in 72 procedures (20.7%), allergic reactions in 69 procedures (19.8%) and hypotension in 60 procedures (17.2%). Citrate toxicity, chills and allergic reactions were seen more frequently in the TP procedures using FFP than in the TP procedures using albumin (P=0.001). The prevalence of citrate toxicity was significantly lower in the cases where calcium gluconate was administered (P<0.001), while it was significantly higher in the patients whose hematocrit was below 28.5%(P<0.001). In terms of severity, the mild, moderate and severe adverse reactions were 36.8%, 56.3% and 6.9%,respectively. Conclusion: TP is a relatively safe method of treatment, but it is important to predict and prevent adverse reactions and to respond appropriately to these adverse reactions.
Objective To investigate the global functional reorganization of the brain following spinal cord injury with graph theory based approach by creating whole brain functional connectivity networks from resting state-functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI), characterizing the reorganization of these networks using graph theoretical metrics and to compare these metrics between patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) and age-matched controls.Methods Twenty patients with incomplete cervical SCI (14 males, 6 females; age, 55±14.1 years) and 20 healthy subjects (10 males, 10 females; age, 52.9±13.6 years) participated in this study. To analyze the characteristics of the whole brain network constructed with functional connectivity using rs-fMRI, graph theoretical measures were calculated including clustering coefficient, characteristic path length, global efficiency and small-worldness. Results Clustering coefficient, global efficiency and small-worldness did not show any difference between controls and SCIs in all density ranges. The normalized characteristic path length to random network was higher in SCI patients than in controls and reached statistical significance at 12%–13% of density (p<0.05, uncorrected).Conclusion The graph theoretical approach in brain functional connectivity might be helpful to reveal the information processing after SCI. These findings imply that patients with SCI can build on preserved competent brain control. Further analyses, such as topological rearrangement and hub region identification, will be needed for better understanding of neuroplasticity in patients with SCI.
말은 인간의 오랜 벗이자 반려동물이며, 가축, 전쟁의 도구, 교통수단으로서 다양한 쓰임새를 지닌다. 해외 말(馬)산업은 경마, 승마, 마육, 말과 관련된 문화콘텐츠 등의 말산업으로 균형적인 발전을 해왔다. 하지만 국내 말산업은 유럽의 말산업과 비교하였을 때 초기단계이며, 경마산업에 치중되어 발전하였다. 그 결과 대다수 국민은 경마를 사행산업으로, 승마를 특수계층의 스포츠로 이분화 하면서 말산업에 대해서 부정적인 인식을 갖게 되었다 해도 과언이 아닐 것이다. 이러한 관점에서 말을 활용한 영상콘텐츠는 말에 대한 관심을 유도할 수 있고 말산업을 홍보하고 광고하는데 최고의 수단이 될 수 있다. 또한 영상콘텐츠는 인간과 말의 교감을 효과적으로 표현할 수 있고 말을 쉽게 전파할 수 있는 장점을 가진다. 따라서 국내 말산업 발전에 기여 할 수 있는 잠재력과 가능성을 가진다.
The purpose of this study is to find out how the GRIT of swimming participants affects the effect of exercise adherence intention and physical self-efficacy. The subjects of this study were 309 adults attending C swimming pool and N swimming pool located in C city in Chungbuk region. The results were as follows: First, the GRIT(consistency of interest, persistence of effort, adaptability to situations) of sports swimming participants had a positive (+) correlation with the exercise adherence intention, and it was found that grit influenced the exercise adherence intention. Second, the GRIT(consistency of interest, persistence of effort, adaptability to situations) of sports swimming participants had a positive (+) correlation with the physical self-efficacy(perceived physical ability, and physical self-presentation confidence), and it was found that grit influenced the physical self-efficacy(perceived physical ability, and physical self-presentation confidence. Therefore, it can be seen that the higher the level of grit, the greater the exercise adherence intention to participate in swimming, and the ability to perform tasks related to physical performance and the confidence to be evaluated by others. 본 연구의 목적은 생활체육 수영 참여자의 그릿과 운동 지속 의도, 신체적 자기효능감과의 관계 및 그릿이 운동 지속 의도와 신체적 자기효능감에 미치는 영향을 규명하는 것이다. 연구대상은 생활체육 수영에 참여하는 성인 309명이었다. 그 결과는 다음과 같다. 첫째, 생활체육 수영 참여자의 그릿(흥미의 일관성, 노력의 지속성, 상황에 대한 적응성)은 운동 지속 의도와 정(+)의 상관관계가 있으며, 그릿이 운동 지속 의도에 영향을 주는 것으로 나타났다. 둘째, 생활체육 수영 참여자의 그릿(흥미의 일관성, 노력의 지속성, 상황에 대한 적응성)이 신체적 자기효능감(인지된 신체능력, 신체적 자기표현 자신감)과 정(+)의 상관관계가 있으며, 그릿이 신체적 자기효능감(인지된 신체능력, 신체적 자기표현 자신감)에 영향을 미친 것으로 나타났다. 따라서 그릿 수준이 높을수록 계속적으로 수영을 참여하고자 하는 지속의도를 증가시키며, 신체적 수행과 관련된 과제를 할 수 있는 능력과 그 능력을 타인에게 평가받을 수 있는 자신감을 높이는 것을 알 수 있다.
This article briefly reviews the research findings on post-stroke rehabilitative therapy mainly published in 2011. Topics on approaches for motor function recovery include the use of body-weight-supported treadmill, robotic training, virtual reality, functional electrical stimulation, intensive treatment and motor imagery. Rehabilitative strategies to improve functional recovery such as comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation. Also, pharmacotherapy using noradrenaline agonist reboxetine and botulinum toxin injection are discussed in this review.
Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a neurological disorder characterized by an irresistible urge to move one's body to stop uncomfortable or odd sensations. It most commonly affects the legs. Moving the affected body part, such as walking or stretching provide relief the urge to move the legs and any accompanying unpleasant sensation partially or totally. RLS is relatively common, affecting 5 to 15 % of the general population, with prevalence rates increasing alongside age. Restless legs syndrome can lead to sleep-onset or sleep-maintenance insomnia, and occasionally excessive daytime sleepiness, all leading to significant morbidity. Dopaminergic systems are known to be strongly related with RLS that are closely linked to CNS iron homeostasis. Besides defective dopaminergic system that is closely related with iron metabolism, genetic factors play a role in early-onset individual with a positive family history. The diagnosis can be made based on the symptom characteristics, differential diagnosis is important because many conditions could mimic RLS symptoms. Dopamine agonists (DAs) have been considered the first-line therapy, but with the growing appreciation of problems associated with long-term treatment, particularly augmentation and impulse control disorder, alpha-2-delta drugs, such as gabapentin, are now considered the first line of treatment in patients with troublesome RLS. In more severe cases, a combination therapy may be required.