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N. Hartman advocated the independence of value. He stressed that the value does not rely on actual facts but stands independently. He attributed the value to inner attitude or spontaneity of feeling as well as reaction to experienced facts. This value comes from intuition and it comes from purity and universality in its categorematic structure. According to N.Hartman, relativity and absoluteness are complimentary to each other in the value. He asserted that the aesthetic value represents all kinds of beauty. This special quality of the beauty can be discovered in natural beauty and human physical appearance as well as art. This beauty comes out of the personality of humans. This aesthetic value, and the independence of their aesthetic value can be summarized as follows: First, the existence and comfort values do not reappear as element in the aesthetic value. Second, the level of the existence and comfort values does not determine the level of the aesthetic value. This study comes to conclusion that the value ranks in order of aesthetic value, ethical value, life value, existence value, and comfort value, However, N.Hartman viewed that the aesthetic value is not universally or inevitably based on the ethical value, life value, existence value, and comfort value in order and that nothing should be based on any of these. In conclusion, the aesthetic beauty cannot be arrayed in order and nothing can be revealed but for just a distinctive one.
The cathodic arc spot size of a nontransferred arc plasma torch is an important parameter that can predict the thermionic emission phenomenon for arc channel formation and the ion flux that impinges on the cathode surface. However, experimentally measuring the cathodic arc spot size is difficult. Therefore, in this study, a numerical analysis to estimate the cathodic arc spot size was performed according to the input current level with a tungsten cathode by using a self-developed magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) code. The various current environments were compared as low (0.424 A), intermediate (35, 60, and 90 A), and high (350 A) current levels. At each input current level, the arc voltage was calculated for the arc spot sizes from 1.0 to 4.0 mm. The appropriate cathodic arc spot size was estimated by comparing the measured and the calculated voltages. As a result, the cathodic arc spot radius had a valid difference depending on the input current level, and the influence of the cathodic arc spot radius was particularly sensitive under the low (0.424 A) current condition.
The author evaluated the nasal asymmetry after primary operations in the patients with unilateral cleft lip using full face photographs. The results are as follows : 1. Nasal deviation angle is average 2.98+3.01 degree(ranged from 0 to 10 degree), significantly different from control group(p<0.05). 2. Nasal deviation angle is average 5.1% when inter-medial canthal distance is 100%, significantly different from control group(p<0.05). 3. Difference in nostril size between cleft and noncleft side is 2.1% when inter-medial canthal distance is 100%, significantly different from control group(p<0.05). 4. Nasal attractiveness analysis shows higher points in difference in nostril size, nasal deviation, nasal form in that order. 5. Nasal asymmetry after primary operations in the patients with unilateral cleft lip using full face photographs is related with Nasal deviation angle, Nasal deviation distance and Difference in nostril size between cleft and noncleft side.