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Continuous assessment of arterial oxygenation is important in the clinical management of critically ill patients. Analysis of arterial blood gas is reliable but is invasive and only provides intermittent informations. In order to determine the accuracy of pulse oximeters in ICU patients, arterial oxygen saturation was measured in 58 patients in ICU using two kinds of pulse oximeters (Ohmeda, CSI), while simutaneously analyzing arterial blood gases. The relationship between the pulse oximeters saturation (SpO_2) and arterial oxygen saturation (SaO_2) was evaluated, Group I consisted of 102 samples of SpO_2 using an Ohmeda pulse oximter in 45 of 72 patients. Group Ⅱ included 102 samples of SpO_2 using a CSl pulse oximeter in 45 of 72 patients. Both Ohmeda and CSI pulse oximeters were applied to 32 patients. Group Ⅲ had 204 samples, thE Sum of Groups Ⅰ and Ⅱ. The results were as follow ; 1) The correlation coefficients of SpO2 to SaO2 in Groups Ⅰ, Ⅱ and Ⅲ were 0.97, 0.90 and 0.96 (p $lt; 0.775). 2) Mean differtween SaO2 and SpO2 in Groups 1, ll and 111 were almost within the limit of 1%. 3) The correlation coefficient of SpO2 between Ohmeda andcsr pulse oximeter was 0.79, and there was no mean difference between them in the 32 patients who were tested with both the Ohmeda and the CSI pulse oximeters. In conclusion, a pulse oximter is an accurate noninvasive device which assesses arterial oxygenation and provides information continuously. Wider clinical indication will follow.
We had examined the invasive blood pressure monitoring of superficial temporal, radial and femoral artery in two eases of Takayasus syndrome with mitral regurgitation and acute renal artery infarction. Mitral valve replacement and aorto-renal bypass graft were done by using cardiopulmonary bypass and one-lung ventilation respectively, The results are ; 1) Superficial temporal artery monitoring was more reliable and less fluctuant than femoral and radial artery monitoring in blood pressure. But we dont know the relationship of adequate cerebral perfusion pressure and superficial temporal artery pressure. 2) The femoral artery pressure monitoring was not adequate when the patients had a problem with ascending and descending aorta patency. 3) We had good results in the patient management by the monitoring of superficial temporal artery pressure.
낙동강 본류에 위치한 8개보의 수문 및 하구둑 배수문의 홍수시 운영방안을 내부경계로 포함하는 부정류 계산모형을 개발하였다. 보의 운영방안으로는 보 수위가 어떤 기준수위보다 낮으면 수문을 폐쇄하고 기준수위 이상이면 수문을 개방하되, 수문개도는 보 수위와 기준수위의 차에 비례하도록 하는 방안이 적용되었다. 하구둑의 경우 외조위가 하구둑 내수위보다 높으면 수문을 폐쇄하되, 창녕함안보 통과유량을 기준으로 기존 및 증설 배수문을 개방하는 현재의 운영방안과 8개 보의 경우와 동일한 방법으로 개도를 결정하는 새로운 운영방안 등 2개의 운영방안을 적용할 수 있도록 하였다. 개발된 계산모형을 적용하여 2003년 9월 홍수에 대한 모의계산을 수행하였다. 새로운 하구둑 운영방안의 매개변수에 대한 민감도를 분석하였으며, 기존의 운영방안을 적용할 경우의 계산결과와의 비교 분석을 수행하였다.
This study was performed to develop and evaluate cookies prepared with various amounts (0 g, 12.5 g, 25 g and 37.5 g) of mealworm powder to serve as not only sports snacks but also for the general population as a new protein source. In the chromaticity of mealworm cookies, lightness and yellowness decreased whereas redness increased with more mealworm powder. The hardness of the mealworm cookies increased as more mealworm powder was added. In sensory evaluation, higher preference was shown with the measure of color, taste, and overall preference for mealworm cookies prepared with 50% mealworm powder (MP2). For the general composition of MP2, the moisture, carbohydrate, crude protein, crude fat and crude ash were higher compared with the control cookie. For the mineral contents of MP2, the contents of Ca (33.44 mg/100 g), P (225.13 mg/100 g), Mg (82.21 mg/100 g), Na (246.22 mg/100 g), and K (503.49 mg/100 g) were higher compared with the control cookie. The essential amino acids (valine, isoleucine, leucine, methionine, threonine, phenylalanine, and histidine) in MP2 were also higher compared with the control cookie. It was concluded that MP2 can be used as a new protein source for not only the maintenance of muscle but also for the prevention of muscle loss in old people.