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The secular variations of temperature and urban effects in the major cities(Seoul, Pusan, Taegu and Kwangju) for 38 years from 1954 to 1991 were studied. The difference between the observational and natural values were adopted to evaluate the urban effects on temperature. The secular variations of the observational natural and values, and the urban effects on temperature in Taegu and major cities were compared. The observational values of temperature show an increasing tendency in the major cities. Average values of temperature increased the most in Taegu, in decreasing order, Seoul, Pusan and Kwangju. Temperature change is not propotional to urbanization. The annual increase of the maximun temperature due to urbanization is the smallest in comparison to the annual increase of mean temperature and the minimum temperature. The slope of regression line of secular change of temperature shows an increasing tendency in spring, and shows a decreasing tendency in summer. The urban effect in Taegu shows a increasing trend, 1.1 C (annual mean maximum temperature), 1.8 C (annual mean minimum temperature) and 0.7 C (annual mean temperature) due to urban climate. The slope of regression line of monthly secular changes of temperature in Taegu shows the values of 0. 053 C/year in April and -0.023 C/year in July. The urban effects are the highest in Taegu, in dcreasing order, Seoul, Pusan and Kwangju.
Elements of atmospheric environment, temperature, humidity and wind, at the compus of KNU(Kyungpook National University) were investigated by the observations. The observed data were compared with those of DWS (Daegu Weather Station). The simulations of wind field and dispersions of polluted gases were conducted by MUKLIMO under the various conditions. The results show that the atmospheric environment of KNU are suitable but the campus does not play role as a heat sink in the city. The simulations of wind field show the air flows and wind channels in the campus clearly. The exhausted gases by motor vehicles on the northside street of campus affect very much to the campus with NW(300˚) wind. The running cars in the campus are also pollute much on the campus with the various wind directions. The characteristics of environmental conditions, various meteorological fields, wind channels, and dispersion of exhausted gases at the campus of KNU were understood quantitatively in the study.
본 연구에서 사용한 DRASTIC 시스템은 미국 EPA에서 개발한 것으로, 수리지질학적 인자를 사용하여 상대적인 지하수 오염 가능성을 분석하는데 널리 이용된다. 또한 정호 및 매립지 위치 선정과 지하수 보호책으로의 토지이용 기초자료, 감시 목적과 오염지역 복원시 자금을 효율적으로 할당하는데 유용하게 이용될 수 있다. 본 연구는 이러한 시스템을 이용하여 충주호 주변의 지하수 오염 가능성을 분석한 것이다. 이번 연구에서는 지하수면의 깊이, 함양도, 대수층과 토양의 구성성분, 지형과 수리전도도의 수리지질학적 인자를 사용하였다. 보다 정밀한 분석을 위해 원격탐사자료에서 끌어낸 선구조를 DRASTIC 시스템에 이용하였다. 본 연구에서는 지구정보시스템(GIS)과 그래픽 사용자 인터페이스를 개발 연구하여 지하수 오염 가능성과 위험도를 지도화하여 쉽고 빠르게 이해할 수 있도록 하였다. DRASTIC system was used in this study that was developed by U.S. EPA and is widely used for evaluating relative groundwater pollution potential by using hydrogeological factors. The DRASTIC system can be used for selection of well sites, selection of waste disposal sites and basic data of landuse for groundwater protection, and monitoring purpose and efficient allocation of resource for remediation. This study analyzed regional groundwater pollution potential around Chungju Lake using the DRASTIC system. Hydrogeological factors used in this study are depth to water, net recharge, aquifer media, soil media, slope and hydraulic conductivity. For accurate analysis, lineament density that is extracted from image processing of satellite image is overlaid to the DRASTIC system. Results of this study are mapped so groundwater pollution potential and risk degrees can be understood easily and quickly. A graphic user interface is developed to process the data conveniently.
The gravity measurement has been conducted at 113 stations with an interval of about 1km along the national road of about 120km running from Busangdong to Pohang through Waekwan, Daegu, Youngchun and Aankang. The subsurface geology and structure along the survey line is interpreted from Bouguer anomaly by applying Fourier method and Talwani method for two dimensional body. The mean depth of Moho discontinuity is 31.4km, and the depth decreases very slowly from inner continent toward east coast. The depth of Conrad discontinuity increases from 11km at the east coastal area to 17km at the inner continental area, and especially increases rapidly in the area between Waekwan to Busangdong. The depth of basement of Kyoungsang Basin inereases from near Waekwan toward Daegu upto about 4. 8km, and increases rapidly to reach the maximum depth of about 8.5km at 8km east of Daegu. But it starts to decrease from the place of 10km west of Youngchun, and is about 7.2km at Youngchun and about 6km at 6km east of Youngchun. The depth starts to increase smoothly beyond this point, and is 7km at 15km east of Youngchun. From this point, the depth starts to decrease again, and is about 3.8km at Ankang. The depth of basement of Pohang Basin is 500m at Pohang and about 650m at 5km west of Pohang. A massive granite body which is considered to be a part of Palgongsan Granite exposed at the depth of 1. 5km at 9km west of Youngchun. Another massive granite body is situated underneath the Pohang Basin at depth of 1.5 to 2km, and sedimentary rocks of Kyoungsang Group and volcanic rocks are distributed between Pohang Basin and this granite body. Finally, Yangsan Fault is identified at about 2.5km east of Ankang.
Geological and electrical resistivity surveys along the survey line of about 3 km between Kyungsangbukdo Youngilgun Hodong and Gwangmyungdong using by dipole-dipole electrode array method were carried out to examine the boundary and structural relationship between Tertiary Pohang and Janggi basins. Electrical resistivity data were interpreted qualitatively and quantitatively by means of pseudosection of apparent electrical resitivity distribution and finite difference method for two dimensional geologic structure model. The nearly vertical fault zone with low electrical resistivity value of 1-5 Ohm-m and widths of about 200m at the surface and 400 m at depth exists around 1.2 km west of national road between Ocheoneup and Yangbukmyun. Mudrocks, sandstones and tuffaceous rocks are widely distributed with electrical resistivity values of 6-77 Ohm-m. Especially, tuffaceous rocks with relatively high electrical resistivity value are predominant at eastern side of fault zone. Consequently, it is known that Pohang and Janggi basins are in fault contact.
A model study based on an electrical resistivity was conducted for the interpretation of simple geologic structures. Experiments were carried out for the cases of two horizontal beds and dipping beds in a water tank by using Wenner and Schlumber gerarrays respectively. As a geologic stratum of experimental model, cement bed (cement:sand=1 : 2) of 70cm×60cm×10cm was used. It was found out from a preliminay experiment that a measuring sounding of Wenner array is one third of the distance between two current electrodes, and Schlumberger array is one fourth of the distance which is the a half of the value determined by usual method of calculation. Equi-resistivity curves were obtained for the cases of horizontal beds and dipping beds, and mapped on the longitudinal and cross sections of the water tank. These curves delineate the shape and degree of dip of led to some extent. The calculation of depth to beds by using a master curve is somewhat complicated and inexact. In this study, new method for this calculation using a ρα/ρ1-a graph was proposed, and turned out that this method is simpler and exact.
The status of facilities, management for the experiment, practices, teaching method and evaluation method for inquiry learning on the science education of middle school have been investigated. The questionnaire prepared by the institute were sent to all the middle school in Taegu Kyungpook area. 189 questionnaires among 340 were collected. The present status and reasonable management of the middle school Science education have been grasped from the questionnaires. The results Are as follows: The reasonable managements for experiments and practices of Science education were scacty in middle school around the urban and Rural school owing to the shortage of facilities and equipments, of present Textbook and insufficienty of the administrative supports etc. The current teaching method and evaluation method of middle school science have emphasized on knowledge. This fact does not satisfy the objective of learning due to lackness of the teaching method and evaluation method. A desirable directions for the improvement of present status of Middle school science education were proposed in this paper.
The gravity measurement has been conducted at 69 points with an interval of about 1km along the national road between Masan and Busan through Kimhae to study on the subsurface geology and structure of Kyongsang basin. The Bouguer gravity anomalies were obtained from the observed gravity values, and interpreted by means of the Fourier-series method and Talwani method for 2-dimensional body. The depth of Conrad discontinuity is about 14.8km at the west end of survey line, and increases smoothly to about 13.6km at the east end. But it is uplifted by about 500m between Yangsan and Dongnae faults. The depth of the basement of Kyongsang basin is about 4.8km at the west end. It decreases gradually passing Masan, and reaches the maximum depth of 5.6km at the 15km east of Masan. Hereafter, it starts to increase to 4.3km at the east end. It is also uplifted by about 500m between Yangsan and Dongnae faults. The Bulgugsa granites which cause two low Bouguer gravity anomaly zones are distributed in the vicinity of Masan at depth of about 3.5km and Kimhae area at depth of about 5.3km. Diorite, granodiorite, aplite, and felsite are distributed with various depth of about 1~1.7km, and Jusasan andesitic rocks, except porphyritic one located at the west of Kimhae, are distributed with depth of about 1km. Three fracture zones associated with faults are located at the places where v-shaped Bouguer gravity anomalies are appeared.
The energy balance over earth's surface in Korea is estimated by using climatological data for a period from 1931 to 1960. The amount of net radiation, latent heat of evaporation, sensible heat into air and heat transfer into soil are calculated respectively. In addition, the geographical distribution, the characteristics and the annual variation of energy in Korea are also examined. As the results, they are shown that the mean amount of solar radiation at the top of the atmosphere over Korea are 707 ly/day, of which, 47% is attenuated by the atmosphere, 10% is reflected and only 43% is absorbed by the surface. The rate of the amount of net radiation, latent heat of evaporation and sensible heat into air to the amount of solar radiation at the top of the atmophere are 21%(147 ly/day), 14%(99 ly/day) and 7%(48 ly/day) respectively.