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The purpose of this study is to analyze the air conditioner (AC) use behavior of occupants based on monitoring data. The indoor temperature and humidity, the occupancy state, and the infrared signal of the AC remote control of 4 households were collected. Using the above data, specific user behavior (on/off, set-temperature, air volume, etc. adjustment) was determined. The collected information on the AC use was divided into three categories based on the occupancy state; entering, leaving, and staying. The probability of turning on and off on the AC according to the DI (discomfort index) while staying the room was also analyzed. The result of this study is significant for future research on predicting the energy consumption propensity of the residents and for developing on AC use model based on user behavior.
The inheritance law is a complex regulation that has both family and property legal characteristics, and the integration of the inheritance law between the two Koreas is one of the urgent tasks to be solved in the process of integrating the two Koreas' legislation. This study sought to derive the source of the law on inheritance between the two Koreas, compare its main contents, and then focus on how to overcome the major differences between the two Koreas' inheritance laws based on the basic direction of the legal integration of the unified Korea. The main provisions regarding inheritance are provided by the Civil Act in South Korea, and the Family Law and the Inheritance Act in North Korea. The differences between the inheritance laws of South and North Korea are mainly seen in general principles such as inheritance property and inheritance order, right to claim inheritance recovery, approval and abandonment of inheritance, will, a legal portion of an heir and execution of inheritance. The basic principle of the constitution of the unified Korea should be based on the basic order of liberal democracy, and it is necessary to expand the application of the South Korean civil law in the integration of the North-South inheritance law, but temporarily recognize the effectiveness of some regulations under the North Korean inheritance law to promote legal stability and protect the trust of the North Korean people. Therefore, the special provisions of the inheritance law of the unified Korea should be put in place to solve the problem of conflict between the major differences in the inheritance law between the two Koreas until the full application of the South Korean civil law after the date of entry into force of the Unification Agreement. Also, since the North Korean law is not immutable but can change according to social and economic changes in the North, I believe that further research on the integration of the North-South inheritance law should continue, noting the possibility of changes in the North's inheritance law due to marketization. 상속법은 가족법적 성격과 재산법적 성격을 모두 갖고 있는 복합적인 법규범이며, 남북한 상속법 통합은 남북한 법제 통합과정에서 해결이 가장 시급한 과제 중 하나이다. 본 연구는 남북한 상속법의 법원을 도출하고 그 주요 내용을 비교한 다음, 통일한국의 법제통합 기본 방향을 전제하여 상속법 통합의 기본방향을 설정하고, 이를 바탕으로 남북한 상속법 간 주요 상이점을 어떻게 극복할 것인지를 중점적으로 살펴보면서 통일한국에서의 상속법 통합 방안을 제시하고자 하였다. 상속에 관하여 남한에서는 민법 ‘제5편 상속’에서, 북한에서는 가족법과 상속법에서 주요 내용을 규정하고 있으며, 남북한 상속법 간 상이점은 상속재산, 상속순위 등 일반원칙과 상속회복청구권, 상속의 승인과 포기, 유언, 유류분, 상속의 집행 등에서 주로 나타난다. 통일 한국의 헌법적 기본원리는 자유민주적 기본질서에 입각하여야 하며, 남북한 상속법 통합 시남한 민법을 확장 적용하는 것을 원칙으로 하되 북한 상속법상 일부 규정의 효력을 잠정적 으로 인정하여 법적 안정성과 북한 주민의 신뢰 보호를 도모할 필요가 있다. 따라서 통일합의서 발효일 이후 남한 민법을 전면적으로 적용하기 이전까지의 기간 동안 남북한 상속법의 주요 상이점 간 충돌의 문제를 해결하기 위하여 통일한국의 상속법 특례규 정을 두어야 한다. 또한 북한법이 고정불변한 것이 아니라 북한의 사회적·경제적 변화에 따라 변화할 수 있으므로, 시장화로 인한 북한 상속법의 변화 가능성에 주목하여 남북한 상속법 통합에 관한 후속 연구가 계속 이어져야 한다고 생각한다.
The aim of the experimental study was to compare the effect of the ascorbic acid on wound healing in the guniea pigs histopathologically. The 45 animals were divided into three groups. On control group received 5㎎ / day ascorbic acid, the experimental group Ⅰ 100㎎ / day ascorbic acid, and the experimental group Ⅱ the ascorbic acid deficient diet. All groups were maintained on water and a diet containing all the essential nutrients except ascorbic acid through the 28 day experimental period. The excisional wounds were made on the middorsal aspect in the guinea pig with special biopsy instrument with a diameter of 2mm in all animals 7 day after they were placed on the above regimens. Each of the experimental and control animals were killed at 1, 3, 7, 14, 21 day after the surgical procedure. Each specimen was stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin stain. On the late phase of healing, several specimens were stained Masson's trichron stain for collagen fibers. The following result were obtained. In the secondary healing, more than 21 days was necessary for guinea pig to complete healing. More rapid and good wound healing on the experimental group I than in the control group and the experimental group Ⅱ because of the collagen formation in healing wounds. In the experimental group Ⅰ, complete wound healing was present, but epidermis was perfect.
저자는 DMBA 유도 햄스터협낭암의 다단계 발암과정에서 암억제유전자산물 p53, 상피성장인자수용체 (EGF-r) 및 증식세포핵항원 (PCNA)의 상호 관련성을 연구하기 위해 햄스터(Syrian golden hamster) 92 마리를 실험동물로 하여 대조군은 0, 4, 8, 16 주에, 실험군(DMBA 도포군)은 4, 8, 16 주에 각각 희생시켜 표본제작하여 면역조직화학적 검색을 행한 바 다음과 같은 결과를 얻었다. DMBA 유도 햄스터협낭암에서 정상점막부터 과형성, 이형성증과 유두종 및 편평상피암의 발생을 시기별로 관찰할 수 있었다. p53 변이는 햄스터의 전암병소인 과형성부터 나타나 병변이 이형성증을 거쳐 편평상피암으로 진행될수록 빈도가 증가되어 비교적초기에 p53 변이가 생겨 DMBA 유도 햄스터 편평상피암의 발생 및 진전에 p53 유전자의 변이가 관여함을 알 수 있었다. EGF-r 발현은 주로 전암병소에 증가되어 암발생에 부수된 소견으로 간주되었다. 세포의 증식능을 알 수 있는 PCNA 양성율은 정상조직보다 전암병소인 과형성과 이형성증에서 더 높았다. 전암병소중 이형성이 중정도이상인 경우 더욱 높은 양상을 보였다. 편평상피암에서 전암병소보다 더욱 높은 수치의 PCNA 양성율을 보여 병변이 진행될수록 종양의 증식능도 높아짐을 알 수 있었다. 이와 같이 햄스터의 협낭암 발생에 p53 변이가 세포증식능의 증가와 수반되어 암발생의 비교적 초기부터 나타나 p53 변이와 증가된 PCNA 증식능은 두경부암의 재발이나 제2원발암의 발생위험도를 측정할 수 있는 한 중요한 표식자가 될 수 있다고 생각되었다. This study was carried out to investigate the cellular and molecular mechanisms of hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis treated with 0.5% DMBA (7.12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene) in mineral oil. Ninety two Syrian golden hamsters, maintained on a stock diet, 4-6 weeks old, were divided into control and 3 experimental groups. Control group. (20 hamsters). Both buccal pouches of hamsters were left untreated. Animals were sacrificed at 0, 4, 8 and 16 weeks. Experimental groups (72 hamsters), were treated with 0.5% DMBA tri-weekly on the right buccal pouch. Animals were sacrificed at 4, 8, 16 weeks after treatment. Sacrificed animal buccal pouches were sectioned and examined for potential alterations in the expression of p53 tumor suppressor gene to determine whether p53 alterations are modulated in the different stages of hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis. For these samples, we also investigated the expression patterns of EGF-r (epidermal growth factor receptor). PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen) was used to investigate cell kinetics of hamster tumors. The results were as follows; 1. The DMBA-treated buccal pouches were generally white and irregularly thickened up to 8 weeks. There were multiple, various polypoid tumors throughout the mucosa at 16 weeks. Light microscopically the buccal pouch epithelium in BMBA- treated groups showed areas of hyperkeratosis and hyperplasisa at 4 weeks, dysplasia at 8 weeks, and early and invasive squamous cell carcinoma at 16 weeks. 2. The presence, pattern and distribution of p53 staining depended greatly on the morphology of the lesion. The non-neoplastic lesions were negative for mutant p53 protein, whereas preneoplastic (hyperplasia and dysplasia) and neoplastic lesions (squamous cell carcinoma) were positive for p53. 3. EGF-r expression was found in non-neoplastic and preneoplastic lesions, but no expression in the neoplastic lesion. 4. The PCNA labeling index correlated well with the stages of buccal pouch epithelium carcinogenesis. 5. The staining pattern and distribution for mutant p53 protein was directly correlated with PCNA distribution whereas neither directly correlated with EGF-r. These results suggest that p53 alterations occur in a multistep fashion with corresponding increase of cell kinetics revealed by PCNA during the hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis. Mutation of the p53 gene is an important step in the pathogenesis of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch squamous cell carcinoma but EGF-r expression may be incidental.
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This study shows the legal measures and tasks for the realization of marriage between North and South Koreans, assuming that inter-Korean relations progress and enter the inter-Korean coalition stage. The current laws relating to marriage between the two Koreas are generally similar. On the other hand, there are significant differences in matters related to divorce, child-rearing derived from divorce, and the right to claim property division. In North Korea, there are penalties for unfair marriage and divorce that are not found in South Korea. This is due to the peculiarity of the North Korean legislation that regards marriage and family life as objects of state control. Examining the cases of other divided countries, former East and West Germany applied private international law to solve the problem of legal conflict. Instead of adopting a unified legislative method for the marriage legislation between the residents of both sides, China and Taiwan have each legislated independently, but have coordinated the content through consultation. Marriage between North and South Cypriots has rarely occurred. If People between North and South Cyprus are married, EU law could be used as the governing law. The problem of legal conflict, which has been common in several divided countries, also occurs in marriages between North and South Koreans. As a way to solve this problem, it is possible to propose a measure to select one of South Korean law or North Korean law and apply it uniformly, a measure to determine the governing law by applying private international law, and a measure to enact a separate legal norm to determine the governing law. Among these three measures, the signing of an agreement between the two Koreas as a common norm applied to marriage and divorce between North and South Koreans would be a way to stably resolve disputes and to satisfy both South and North Korea. The policy on marriage between North and South Koreans should be promoted in the direction of ensuring the principle of individual freedom and gender equality, and providing consistent principles for determining governing law. It would be necessary to establish a document certification procedure between the two Koreas by establishing a joint certification office in the resident representative office. And an agreement between the two Koreas should be concluded to present the criteria for determining the governing law. After that, in order to implement the inter-Korean agreement, marriage-related laws of the two Koreas should be revised. By revising the Family Relations Registration Act in South Korea and the Citizen Registration Act in North Korea, the resident representative office should be able to handle the registration of occurrences and changes in marriage. In case of South Korea, legal measures would be necessary to give effect to reflect the exclusion of the application of Article 19-2 (1) to (5) of the North Korean Defectors Act. In case of North Korea, provisions to give effect to the inter-Korean Agreement should be newly established in the Family Law.