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          근현대 조경에 나타난 촉지적 지각 양상-1920년대 전후를 중심으로-

          문석기,김진섭 한국공간디자인학회 2018 한국공간디자인학회논문집 Vol.13 No.1

          (Background and Purpose) The late modern period has various characteristics that distinguish it from earlier periods, and it has had significant influence on contemporary society. Started in the 1920s, the field of landscape architecture is also characterized by a distinctiveness that separates it from the stylistic features and picturesque style of the previous period. The visual-centric viewpoint of the earlier period was rejected by diverse genres of art and the fixed perspective was dissolved. This study examines the effect of the changing perspective on the late modern and modern landscape architecture, with a focus on the 1920s. It traces how visual-centric influence and anti-visual-centric thought interacted and developed an interconnection during this time. Furthermore, the study discusses how the haptic perception characteristics represented by anti-visual-centric thought were realized. (Method) To examine the aspects of the haptic perception expressed in modern and contemporary landscaping, we first gained inductive insight from various landscape architects from the 1920s and case studies. First, the concepts and characteristics of haptic perception are derived through previous research and a literature survey. Second, in the period before 1920s, the difference in the way that the desire for pure nature fused “nature” into the city appeared, and various visual models were explored to form a competitive landscape. Third, we examined the background of the “Modernism” style that appeared after the 1920s; we also explore the characteristics of haptic perception in the modernist landscape through case analysis, as well as how it influenced postmodernism. (Results) The key features of haptic perception are the ambiguity and obscurity of the boundary, the generation of dynamic perspectives, the induction of motility by indefinite circulation, as well as strangeness and sublime beauty due to the impossibility of perception. The transition of the pre-1920s perspective of landscape architecture probably originated from the shifting attitude toward transforming “nature.” The desire for pure nature has seen various attempts to fuse “nature” into the city. After the 1920s, modernist landscape architecture emerged due to the shifting space-time perception and the influence of avant-garde art. This modernist landscape architecture manifests various characteristics of “haptic perception.” (Conclusions) Prior to the 1920s, “nature”—such as parks, roadside trees, and green areas—were fused into various forms within the city, where visual models based on visual thinking spread around the world. In modern landscaping, the most work most characteristic of haptic perception is that of Lawrence Halprin, which contains a wealth of haptic perception elements rather than that of the previous picturesque garden. It also activates haptic perception by enhancing the sense of proximity, expanding the human senses, and providing a strange environment by introducing new materials and colors. (연구배경 및 목적) 근대는 그 이전의 시대와 여러모로 구별되는 특징을 지니고 있으며, 현대에 가장 많은 영향을 주는 시대이다. 특히 1920년대를 전후로 조경 분야에도 그 이전의 양식적 스타일과 픽처레스크 스타일과는 구분되는 특징을 나타낸다. 이 시기 시각중심주의적 사고는 다양한 예술 장르에서 거부되었으며, 고정된 시점은 해체된다. 본 논문은 시각 체제의 변화가 근현대 조경 분야에 미친 영향을 1920년대를 전후하여 고찰하고자 하였다. 시각중심주의적 사고의 영향과 이에 반하는 반-시각중심주의적 사고가 이 시기 어떠한 연관선상에서 상호 발전하였는지 추적하며, 반-시각중심주의의 사고로 대변되는 촉지적 지각의 특성이 어떠한 방식으로 구현되었는지를 살펴보고자 한다. (연구방법) 근현대 조경에 나타난 촉지적 지각의 양상을 고찰하기 위해 1920년대를 전후하여 발표된 조경사의 여러 담론과 다양한 사례 분석을 통해 귀납적으로 파악하고자 하였다. 첫째, 선행 연구 및 문헌 자료를 통해 촉지적 지각의 개념 및 특징을 도출한다. 둘째, 1920년대 이전 시기는 순수한 자연에 대한 열망이 도시에‘자연'을 융합하는 방식의 차이가 나타남을 살펴보고 다양한 시각 모델이 경쟁적 구도를 형성하고 있음을 탐구한다. 셋째, 1920년대 이후는‘모더니즘'양식의 출현 배경과 모더니즘 조경에 나타나는 촉지적 지각의 특성을 사례분석을 통하여 살펴보고 포스트모더니즘에 어떠한 영향을 주었는지를 고찰한다. (결과) 촉지적 지각의 주요 특징은 경계의 애매함과 모호함, 동적시점의 생성, 불확정적 동선에 의한 운동성 유발, 지각 불가능성에 의한 낯섦과 숭고미이다. 1920년대 이전 조경 분야에서 시각 체제의 변화는‘자연'을 대하는 태도 변화에서 기인 한 것으로 보여진다. 순수한 자연에 대한 열망은 도시에‘자연'을 융합하고자 다양한 시도를 하였다. 1920년대 이후에는 시공간의 인식변화와 아방가드르적 예술의 영향으로 모더니즘 조경 양식이 나타나며 모더니즘 조경은‘촉지적 지각'의 특성을 다양하게 띠고 있다. (결론) 1920년대 이전 시기는 공원, 가로수, 녹지 등‘자연'은 다양한 양식으로 도시 내에 융합되며, 이 과정에서 시각중심주의적 사고에 입각한 시각 모델이 전 세계적으로 파급되는 시기이기도 하다. 모더니즘 조경에서 촉지적 지각의 특성이 가장 잘 나타나는 작가로는 로렌스 핼프린을 들 수 있으며, 이전 픽처레스크 정원보다 풍부한 촉지적 지각 요소를 함유하고 있다. 또한, 근거리 지각을 강화하여 인간의 감각을 확장하고 새로운 소재와 색채의 도입으로 낯선 환경을 제공함으로써 촉지적 지각을 활성화 시키고 있다.

        • 地域餘暇資源의 開發과 餘暇管理運營體系 : 淸州圈의 當日 野外餘暇需要를 中心으로 Focused on Day-trip Outdoor Leisure ?? Recreation Demands in Chongju Area

          문석기,장태현,김진선 청주대학교 산업과학연구소 1992 産業科學硏究 Vol.10 No.-

          Leisure & Recreation resources and demands were surveyed and analysed at regional scale through the book review and questionnaire method to propose leisure resource development and recreation management system of Chongju area in Korea. 7 point liquert scale was used for several questions to evaluate some leisure environments of the study area. Followings are the findings of the study and the proposals for the leisure policy of the study region, Chongju area. 1. Basic leisure conditions(personal or environmental) were self-evaluated as so low level. Special considerations are required to several environmental conditions like quantity, complexity and facility management for the better leisure life of the residents. 2. To over 65% of the existing leisure resources, residents'knowledege were evaluated below average level. On this situation, more systematic and effective information delivery system should be prepared. 3. Accessability, inexpensiveness, pleasantness were found to be the major factors for the leisure resource destination. At present situation, the residents mostly prefered the theme-park styles like zoo/botanic garden, play-equipment complex, folk village. But if consider the long term point of view, demands for more active and expensive activities seem to be increased. 4. About fifty percent of the present leisure activity was included in the location of 50-60km and 2hour distance radius area. And seventy to eighty percent, in the 100km and 2.5hour. Considering that results, regional leisure resources are recommended to be distributed and developed with the following context ; urban parks for teenagers and aged, suburbans for youth, and the remote nature areas for manhoods.

        • 주제공원의 이용후 평가를 통한 조경공간 개발방향 연구 : 에버랜드 페스티발월드의 사례를 중심으로 in case of Everland Festival World

          문석기,공윤아 淸州大學校 都市·地域開發硏究所 1999 都市·地域開發硏究 Vol.7 No.-

          To propose more advanced development criteria of landscape space of the theme park by Post Occupancy Evaluation, 5 different theme areas of the park (The Everland Festival World) were evaluated by their spacial characteristics and their user questionnaire analysis. After the POE, the results were applied into developing design and planning criteria for common, and developing criteria for each theme spaces. The developed common general criteria includes some factors regarding building and circulation route arrangements, spaces for passive recreation and rest. And criteria for each theme spaces has specialties following to their each spacial characteristics. As a result, it came to the conclusion that the POE could be used as a effective tool developing design criteria for landscape space of theme park.

        • '코펜하게나이즈 지표'를 활용한 청주시 생활권 자전거환경 평가

          문석기,유병득 청주대학교 산업과학연구소 2016 産業科學硏究 Vol.33 No.2

          To evaluate the bike-environment of neighboring community in Cheongju, 'Copenhagenize Index' - which was developed for the purpose of evaluating bike-environment of world cities. For the study, 13 Index system was revised to 10 Index system appropriate for Chongju. Several Indexes judged be difficult or impossible to apply were changed or discarded considering the regional environments. Questionnaire items to each Indexes were developed and surveyed as a next step. Evaluated bike-environment of Cheongju was scored point 50 - which is very low score comparing to Amsterdam(83) or Copenhagen(81). Among 10 indexes, 'Bicycle Culture' and 'Social Acceptance' highly scored at 8.82 and 7.08 each. But "Perception of Safety' and 'Urban Planning' were low scored at 2.92 and 3.19. Therefore, Cheongju City government should consider bicycle safety education, bicycle plan to lower the risk of bicycle accidents, and a balance road system. This results indicate the future orientation of Cheongju's bicycle policy precisely.

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