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劉師培의 《左傳》?究는 兩漢經學今古文理解의 大思想背景아래 展開되며,그의《左傳》學에 관련된 저술은 古文學의家法에 치우치는 것이 特征이다. 劉師培는 ?年《左傳》條例之學에 대해 대단한 열의를 보인다. 그 대표적인 저술인 1916年《春秋左氏傳例略》는 그의 先祖들이 저술한 《舊注疏證》을 禮制를 重視하는 家學을 기초로 하여 다시 보완하여 저술한 것이다. 劉師培는 漢代賈逵、服虔、潁容등의 漢代先師의 《左傳》學理論을 굳게 믿고 의심치 않아 곳곳에 그들의 說을 인용하여 《左傳》?究에 표준으로 삼았다. 그는 儀征劉氏三代에 이어오는 《春秋左傳舊注疏證》 완성이라는 거대한 家業를 수행하며서 杜預注는 다소 《左傳》 해석에 있어 공헌은 있지만 대부분이 漢人의 說을 표절 하여 賈、服、鄭三君의 面貌를 손상시켰다 하여 杜預《左傳》學의 비판은 그의 중요한 작업이 되었고, 그의 先祖의 理論즉 家學을 계승하여 광대하게 杜預《左傳》 理論을 비판하게 된다. 本稿는 劉師培의 杜預凡例說비판에 대해 살펴보고자 한다.
This study has developed the earth science class model based on flipped learning and analyzed the effects of that model at the elementary pre-teachers' science classes. The model of this study, the material which was consists of all contents and information about classes was offered to learners before science class as a substitute for preceding homework at general flipped learning. In science class, the knowledges which were recorded in materials were explained directly to learners by instructor for 20minutes. So the learners resolved some inquiry questions in materials through mutual debate·collaboration with learners in small group. After inquiry questions' resolving, the learner among small group makes a presentation in front of the whole class. At the same time, the instructor evaluated learning action of all small groups' learners during the classes as process evaluation. The final evaluation results of semester were obtained scores of the small group in 14 classes and the achievements of individual portfolio as final exam. The learners were very positive perception to this science class model, why it is helped to concentrate on the class, extended debating and thinking ability. Consequently, the class model of this study is useful to applicate the earth science classes.
The purpose of this study is the exploring about the effect of applying concept mapping in elementary science classes. For this study, the 116 students under the 5th grades were selected and split into two groups. One group was applied with guided tool of the concept mapping and the other group was applied the activity of general concept mapping. The results of this study were follows. Most subjects of the two groups recalled many conceptions which had were learned in science classes ago, but weren't good at the writing sentence which were based on scientific relation between two concepts. In analyzing of the concepts maps, most of guided concept maps were coupled on concepts each other based on scientific relation but the couples were a little. But most of general concept maps were not coupled on concepts each other based on scientific relation, there were many concept maps which were connected with terms only in general type concept maps. Consequently, based on above results, the subjects of participated in this study were not good at drawing concept mapping. Especially, the scientific concept mapping of general type was a task of great difficult by them. Therefore, the concept mapping of guided type may be recommended as effective tools for elementary science class.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the way applying a school garden for the creative experience activity on the school learning program. For this study, the 27s elementary students who were the 5th and 6th grades participated in this program. And the 10units lessons programs what were consisted with the inquiry, debating, and cooperating activities were developed, and applying to classroom and school garden. The key concepts of developing program were 'rocks which were in the school garden'. he results are follows, for the creative experience activity on the school teaching/learning program, the school garden has useful value as teaching/learning field. The teaching/learning activity applying the school garden makes an offer the awareness to students that the knowledges learned in school were actually relative with their life. Also, the students are affirmatively participate to learning, debate, and cooperate activities because the school garden is very familiar environment to them. Lastly, the students are interesting in learning classes because they think that the school garden environments will reform actually to new shape of their ideas. After this learning were finishing, most of students indicated their intention with satisfaction. Some of them suggested applying the additional program using the school garden. Consequently, the school garden has the very useful value for applying program of the teaching/learning in elementary school education.
이 연구의 목적은 6명의 예비교사들을 대상으로, 탄소 순환을 이해하는데 적용되는 개념들을 조사하여 지구시스템에 관련된 개념은 무엇인가를 알아보고, 탄소 순환에 대해서 시스템 사고를 적절히 수행하고 있는지를 조사하는 것이었다. 연구방법은 고등학교 지구과학에서 다루고 있는 "지구의 구성" 단원 중 '탄소 순환'과 관련된 질문을 통해, 예비교사들이 진술한 내용을 분석하여 개념의 특성을 조사하였다. 이를 근거로 지구시스템에 관련된 개념을 구성요소로 하여 인과지도를 작성한 후, 시스템 사고의 관점에서 분석하였다. 연구결과는 다음과 같다. 첫째, 탄소 순환을 이해하는데 적용된 개념들 중 지구시스템에 대한 관련개념은 모두 42개가 나타났다. 그 중 기권 관련개념은 15개, 생물권 관련개념은 11개, 수권 관련개념은 9개였으며, 암석권 관련개념은 7개였다. 둘째, 인과지도에서 피드백 순환고리는 A와 F 예비 교사들에게서 2개와 1개가 완성되었으나, A예비교사에게서 완성된 2개의 피드백 순환고리 중 1개는 비과학적 개념연결에 근거하였다 결론적으로, 연구에 참가한 6명의 예비교사들은 탄소 순환과 관련하여 지구시스템에서 암석권에 대한 이해가 낮으며, 4명은 시스템 사고가 수행되지 않았고, 2명은 시스템 사고를 수행하였으나, 그 수준은 높지 않았다. Using six preservice teachers as subjects, this study was purposed to research about the concepts in understanding carbon cycle, which of these concepts were related to the conception of the earth system, and finally whether or not the systems thinking was applied sufficiently around carbon cycle. To achieve this study purpose, an instrument related to carbon cycle was developed and administered to the six teachers. The study found that a total of 42 conceptions within the earth system were concepts related to carbon cycle. The list consisted of 15 conceptions in atmosphere, 11 in biospheres, 9 in hydrosphere, and 7 in lithosphere. In aspect of applying the systems thinking, 4 subjects who couldn't compose the feedback loop in their causal map failed to apply this type of thinking. The other two who applied systems thinking had 2 and 1 feedback loop each, in their causal maps. But, one of the feedback loop from the subject who made two was based on unscientific reasoning. As a result, the subjects had lower understanding of concepts related to carbon cycle in lithosphere than those in atmosphere, biosphere, and hydrosphere. Furthermore, the subjects' application of the earth systems thinking on carbon cycle was at a low standard.
The purpose of this study was to suggest the earth science lesson model based on the creativity․character education. To conduct this study, the curriculum revision in 2009 was analyzed by the causal mapping method. One after another, the creativity․character education and earth system education were analyzed by the same method. Through as mentioned above, the key words which have relating concepts each other were picked out. Lastly, the key words were connected and compounded for the earth science lesson model based on the creativity․character education. The model indicates that the earth science lesson based on the creativity․character education requires the reconstructs of the processing and contents of the lesson. In other words, the teaching/learning must be progressed as corresponding between scientific facts and mental recognition, scientific concepts and compounding thinking skill, scientific laws and reconstructing thinking skill. In contents were reconstructed as relating to knowledge, creativity, characters and guidance counseling. The results of this study suggested the earth science lesson model based on the creativity․character education needs developing and applying teaching/learning materials and managing discussing and cooperative learning.
劉師培는 晩淸民國시대 古文經學의 大師중 한명이다. 일생을 그의 집안의 家學을 이어받아 《左傳》 연구와 今古文의 源流를 연구하는데 힘을 썼다. 그의 저서 《漢代古文學辨誣》를 보면 淸代中期이래 점차 興起한 今文經學의 대표적인 인물 劉逢錄、宋翔鳳、魏源、鞏自珍 등의 견해에 대해 《左傳》의 傳承淵源은 그 자체에 있으며 戰國, 秦漢시대 이전에는 今古文의 구분이 없었으며, 經學의 今古文의 구분은 西漢시대에서 부터 시작되었다고 논박하였다. 廖平《今古學考》에서 《王制》는 今文이고, 《周禮》는 古文의 계통이라 구분 지은 견해에 대해서 劉師培는 《王制》의 原本은 古文이고, 漢代今文經學家에 의해 曲解를 거치면서 비로서 지금의 面貌로 바뀌었다고 반박하였다. 전체적으로 볼때 劉師培의 觀點은 다방면으로 廖平과 다소 차이는 있지만, 立論방법 에서는 廖平의 影響을 지대하게 받았다. 그와 동시대의 章太炎과 비교해 볼때, 劉師培의 학설은 歷史적 안목 부족, 지나친 西漢古學숭배, 今古門戶의 견해는 그의 학설의 歷史한계성이다.
In the Yulchonri area of Osanmyeon, Gogseong, conglomerates, tuffs and andesites correlated with the late Cretaceous Yucheon Group of the Gyeongsang Supergroup are occupied the northern rim part of the Neungju Basin. This area includes fo!iated granites and gneisses in. Precambrian(?) and schists in late Paleozoic eras except for above sedimentary rocks. These conglomerates bear gravels mainly composed of gneiss and schist of which might be originated from surrounding area. Thin section studies to the conglomerates support above infers. And, the tuffs are dense and acidic in occurrence. But the andesites are distinguished into two types flowing and shal10w intrusive. Above tuffs and andesites show acidic and rhyodacitic to dacitic representatives in QAP diagrams based on CIPW norm approaches. Additional1y, Na201K20 ratios in conglomerates and tuffs reflect relatively high K-feldspar contents in the rocks. Synthesizing above results, it is inferred that the conglomerates were originated from surrounding highlands having constituted gneisses-granitic rocks in pre-metamorphic stage, in possible. At that depositional time of the conglomerates, volcanism of acidic to intermediate magma was maybe very active.