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        • 부산지역 일부 제조업 산업장의 작업공정별 분진농도

          문덕환,김국규,황용식,강동묵,박명희,손병철,김정원,이채언 인제대학교 2001 仁濟醫學 Vol.22 No.1

          Objectives: For the purpose of preparing the fundamental data to improve the working environment and prevent the occupational disease due to dust in the manufacturing industry. Materials and Methods: The authors measured the levels of dust in 123 factories in Pusan area according to the types of industry and the working process from Jan. 1st 1998 to Dec. 31st 1998. Results: 2.05±1.20mg/m3 was the mean concentration of the 1st class dust in manufacture of fabricated metal products, which exceeded the threshold limit value, 2.00 mg/m3 . 3.55±3.23 mg/m3 was dust in manufacture of the highest mean concentration of the 2nd class other transport equipment, 3.04±1.83 mg/m3 was that of the 3rd class dust in manufacture of furniture (manufacturing not especially classified). And these values were within their own threshold limit values. Conclusions: The mean concentrations of 1st class dust according to the working process were 4.81 mg/m3 for crushing, 2.64 mg/m3 for foaming, 2.57±1.16 mg/m3 for grinding, 2.57 mg/m3 for melting. 4.16 mg/m3 for sand removing in basic metal product manufacturing industry, and 2.05 mg/m3 for drilling in manufacture of fabricated metal products. The mean concentrations of the 2nd class dust according to the working process were 10.11mg/m3 for shooting, 6.26 mg/m3 for drilling, and 8.10 mg/m3 for filling in manufacture of other transport equipment, and all of them exceeded threshold limit value.

        • 조선업 종사 용접공들의 망간 흄 폭로 정도와 건강 위해

          문덕환,박용만,이채언,박명희,박수경,김정호,이용희,황용식 인제대학교 1998 仁濟醫學 Vol.19 No.2

          1997년 5월 1일부터 3개월간 부산지역 모 조선소에서 용접작업을 하는 근로자 120명을 폭로군으로 하고 동일 업체 타 부서에서 근무하며 용접 경력이 전혀 없는 근로자 69명을 대조군으로 하여 이들의 혈중 및 뇨중 망간의 농도를 산정하고 이학적 검사, 임상 증상에 대한 설문조사 및 임상 검사를 실시하였다. 이들 결과를 이용하여 조선업종에 종사하는 용접 공들의 망간 폭로 정도와 이로 인한 건강 위해 정도를 파악함으로써 향후 이들 작업장에서 망간폭로를 미연에 예방할 뿐아니라 향후 이들 분야 종사자들의 건강증진 대책을 마련함에 있어 기초자료를 제공하고자 한다. In order to evaluate the degree of manganese exposure and its heath hazards effect on welders in shipbuilding manufacturing industry, the author measured blood and urine concentrations of manganese and blood chemistry, and also observed clinical symptoms and signs on 120 welders for case and 69 non-welders for control working in shipbuilding manufacturing industry from May to July, 1997. The obtained results were as follows : 1.The mean values of blood and urine concentrations of manganese were 3.1±0.5㎍/dl and 2.6±1.1㎍/l for exposed group, 1.2±0.4㎍/dl and 1.4±0.7㎍/l for control group, and there was statistically significant difference between exposure and control group (P<0.05). 2.Symptoms in exposed group were fatigue(62.5%), excessive sweating (56.7%), amnesia(56.7%), nervousness(54.2%), arthralgia(50.0%), headache and weakness(49.2%) and so on, and there was statistically significant difference compared to control group (P<0.05). 3.Clinical signs in exposed group were tremor(21.7%), palmomental reflex(13.3%), grabellar sign(1.7% ), rigidity(0.8%) and arm swing(0.8%). 4.Manganese exposure effect on blood chemistry, liver function and grip-strength were not observed. 5.There was not statistically significant correlation between manganese concentration in blood, urine and laboratory findings include blood chemistry, liver function and so on. As abode results. the author suggest that further studies are followed to evaluate the status of welders whose blood and urine manganese concentrations were below normal reference level, and to establish the questionnaire and the diagnostic tools to detect the cronic manganese poisioning welders early.

        • 가스 크로마토그래피를 이용한 발암성 혼합 유기용제의 동시정량분석법 개발

          문덕환,김종근,황용식,이용희,김정호,박명희,이종태,이채언 인제대학교 1998 仁濟醫學 Vol.19 No.2

          산업장에서 사용되는 많은 유기용제 중 발암성 문제가 대두됨에 따라 발암성 유기용제들에 대한 폭로량 평가는 근로자들의 건강 관리와 작업환경 관리의 진보에 있어서 기본적이고 필수적인 과정이지만 이를 정성 및 정량적으로 정확히 분석하여 폭로 평가를 한다는 것은 어려운 점이 상당히 많다. 이에 본 연구자는 가스크로마토그래피를 이용하여 산업장 공기중 발암성으로 확인 및 추정된 혼합 유기용제 농도에 대한 동시정량방법을 개발하기 위하여 컬럼. 주입구 및 검출기의 온도를 변화시켜 14종의 발암성 혼합 유기용제의 최적 분리 조건을 제시하고, 이들 자료를 바탕으로 산업 장에서 직업성 폭로에 의한 직업병 예방과 발암성 혼합 유기용제 정량법의 기초 자료를 제공하고자 한다. In order to prepare the fundamental data for determination method on carcinogenic substance of organic solvents and prevent to occupational disease of workers by assessing the occupational exposure in industry, the author developed a simultaneous determination method on 14 carcinogenic organic solvent by gas chromatography with changing the temperature of column, injector and detector. The results were as follows ; 1.The optimum condition of this method were 35-150℃ for colum temperature. 250℃ for injector and detector temperature with capillary OV -1 column at 0.2 kg/㎠ of inlet pressure. 2.The recovery rates of 8 carcinogenic organic solvent including 1,1.2-Trichloroethane were 90% and over.

        • 도시지역 건강한 성인 여성의 뇨증 중금속 농도에 관한 연구

          문덕환,송인혁 인제대학교 1999 仁濟醫學 Vol.20 No.1

          1994년 1월 27일부터 1994년 2월 6일 까지 서울, 부산, 천안, 함암의 4개 도시에 거주하는 20세 이상의 비흡연 건강한 성인 여성 143명을 대상으로 인체에 유해한 중금속을 Graphite furnance atomic absorption spectrophotometry로 정량하고 그 분포를 구하여 각 중금속의 정상치를 산정하여 중금속으로 인한 건강장해를 조기진단, 예방 및 관리를 하는데 도움을 주고자 본 조사를 실시하였으며 그 결과는 다음과 같다. 1.뇨중 중금속의 평균농도 1) Cr: 0.63±0.64㎍/ℓ 2) Cd: 1.68±1.50㎍/ℓ 3) Cu : 13.48±8.64㎍/ℓ 4) Mn : 7.33±8.78㎍/ℓ 5) Pb : 27.00±15.26㎍/ℓ 2.뇨중 중금속의 농도의 분포 1) Cr: 대수정규분포(왜도: -0.373, 첨도: -0.022, P>0.05) 2) Cd: 비정규분포(왜도: 1.202, 첨도: 0.579, P<0.05) 3) Cu: 대수정규분포(왜도: -0.016, 첨도: 0.301, P>0.05) 4) Mn: 비정규분포(왜도: 2.324, 첨도: 5.115, P<0.05) 5) Pb: 비정규분포(왜도: 0.671, 첨도: 0.541, P<0.05) 3.뇨중 크롬, 카드뮴, 구리, 망간, 연의 평균농도는 지역별로 유의한 차이가 있었으나(P<0.05), 연령별 차이는 없었다. 4.뇨중 구리와 뇨중 크롬이 뇨중 망간과 뇨중 카드뮴이 각각 정상관관계를 보였다(P<0.05, P<0.001). In order to provide basic data for early evaluation, prevention and management of health hazard caused by five heavy metals (chromium, cadmium, copper, manganese and lead), the author determined five heavy metals concentration in urine to 143 healthy matured nonsmoking females of 4 cities (Seoul, Pusan, Gheonan and Haman). The concentration of each heavy metal was measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The urine sampling period was January 27 to February 6, 1994. The results were as follows. 1.The mean concentration of heavy metals in urine 1) Cr: 0.63±0.64㎍/ℓ 2) Cd: 1.68±1.50㎍/ℓ 3) Cu : 13.48±8.64㎍/ℓ 4) Mn : 7.33±8.78㎍/ℓ 5) Pb : 27.00±15.26㎍/ℓ 2.Tlle distribution of heavy metals concentration in urine 1) Cr : Lognormal distribution (Skewness : -0.373, Kurtosis : -0.022, P>0.05) 2) CD : Non-normal distribution (Skewness : 1.202, Kurtosis : 0.579, P<0.05) 3) Cu : Lognormal distribution (Skewness : -0.016, Kurtosis : 0.301, P>0.05) 4) Mn : Non-normal distribution (Skewness : 2.324, Kurtosis : 5.115, P<0.05) 5) Pb : Non-normal distributioon (Skewness : 0.671, Kurtosis : 0.541, P<0.05) 3.There were statistically significant differences in the concentrations in urine Cr, Cd, Cu, Mn and Pb by area(P<0.05). 4.Positive correlations were observed between correlations of Cr and Cu(P<0.001), Cu and Cr in urine(P<0.05). 5.The above results point out that the urinary heavy metals concentration of healthy adult women in urban area still hasn't reached the dangerous level. But if the degree of environmental pollution gets worse, the health hazard resulting from the overuse of heavy metal will increase. Therefore, more thoroughgoing measures to preserve our environment will be needed.

        • 중금속 취급 사업장의 업종별 공정별 중금속 농도에 관한 연구

          문덕환,박명희 인제대학교 1999 仁濟醫學 Vol.20 No.1

          부산지역 제조업 산업장 가운데 중금속을 취급하는 151개 사업장을 대상으로 업종별, 공정별 공기 중 유해 중금속의 종류와 그 정도를 파악함으로써 산업장 내의 체계적인 작업 환경 관리 계획 및 수행에 도움이 되게 할 뿐 아니라 각 업종과 공정에서 발생하는 중금속의 적절한 보건관리 대책 마련에 기초 자료를 제공하고자 본 연구를 시행하였다. 본 연구의 결과로 대부분의 업종들은 허용 기준치를 초과하지 않았으나 금속 주조업의 용해공정, 기타 조립금속 제품 제조 및 금속 처리업의 용해공정, 조명장치 제조업의 베이싱 공정은 허응 기준치에 근접하거나 초과하였다. 이에 이들 공정은 근로자들의 건강 관리를 위해 보다 적극적인 작업 환경 관리가 필요하다고 사료된다. In order to improve the working environment for health promotion and prepare the fundamental data on heavy metal concentration in the air of manufacturing industry, the author determined heavy metal (Pb, Cr, Mn, Ni, Zn) concentration of 151 manufacturing industries in Pusan area by type of industry and working process with flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry (Perkin-Elmer 4100ZL) from January 1997 to June 1997. The results were as follows : 1. Geometric mean concentration in ambient air for each heavy metal (Range) 1) Pb : 0.0100mg/m3(0.0013 ∼0.0945mg/m3) 2) Cr : 0.0028mg/m3(0.0005 ∼0.0258mg/m3) 3) Mn : 0.0103mg/m3(0.0002∼1.9830mg/m3) 4) Ni : 0.0050mg/m3(0.0006∼0.0413mg/m3) 5) Zn : 0.8473mg/m3(0.1471 ∼4.8658mg/m3) 2. Geometric mean of Pb in melting process of the casting of metals manufacturing industry among total subjects industry was 0.0945mg/m3, it was exceeded the thleshold limit value. 3. Geometric mean of Zn in melting process of the casting of metals manufacturing industry among total subjects industry was 4,8658mg/m3, it was closed to the thleshold limit value.

        • 도시와 농촌 비둘기 및 인체혈액중의 Vanadium 농도 산정에 관한 연구

          문덕환,김준연,김정균 인제대학교 1985 仁濟論叢 Vol.1 No.1

          This experiment determined the vanadium concentration in pigeon liver and lung tissues from rural and urban areas and .in bloods of workers (male 20, female 6) by carbon furnace Atomic Absorption spectrometry. The purpose of this experiment was in investigating the status of vanadium pollution in atmosphere. The summarized results were as follows : 1.The mean concentration of vanadium in pigeon liver and lung tissues from rural areas was 36.9±2.04ppb and 58.9±2.94ppb, respectively. 2.The mean concentration of vanadium in pigeon liver and lung tissues from urban areas was 64.0±2.62ppb and 91.7±4.26ppb, respectively. 3.The mean concentration of vanadium in pigeon liver and lung tissues from urban areas was more higher than that of rural (P〈0.05). 4.The mean concentration of vanadium in blood of workers(male 20, female 6) was 23.7±3.48ppb.

        • 부산지역 일부 공무원 및 교직원의 고혈압에 관한 조사 연구

          문덕환,최재일 인제대학교 1998 仁濟醫學 Vol.19 No.2

          부산 지역의 공무원 및 교직원 3,507명 중 남성 1,553명(평균연령, 39.3±9.7세), 여성 1,974명(평균연령: 30.3±8.3세)을 조사 대상으로 집단 검진을 실시하여 고혈압 유병율 산정 등 고혈압의 실태를 파악함으로써 이들의 건강 증진에 기여함은 물론 고혈압 관리에 일조가 되게 할 뿐만 아니라 추후 이들 분야의 기초 자료를 제공하고자 1996년 4월 1일부터 동년 10월 30일까지 6개월에 걸쳐 본 조사 연구를 시행하였다. This study was conducted for the purpose of obtaining the fundamental data on hypertension and contributing to health improvement of public official and school personnel, the author carried out the survey for the prevalence rate of hypertension and several factors related with the occurence of hypertension on 3,507 numbers(Male:1,553, Female: 1,974, Average Age:Male:39.3±9.7 years old, Female:30.3±8.3 years old) of public officials and school personnels in Pusan area for 6months from April, 1996. The obtained results were as follows ; 1.The prevalence rate of hypertension among total subjects was 3.9%, and it was gradually increased with aging (P<0.05). 2.The rate of obesity (120% and over of standard body weight) in hypertensive group was higher than normotensive group (P<0.05). 3.The mean concentration of total cholesterol level in hypertensive group was 246.1 46.9mg/dl, and it was increased as blood pressure increased(P<0.05). 4.The abnormal rate in funduscopic findings of hypertensive group was 36.2%, and it was gradually increased as blood pressure increased (P<0.05). 5.The abnormal rate in electrocardiographic findings of hypertensive group was 38.7%.

        • 地下商街內 空氣汚染에 影響을 미치는 要因에 關한 調査 硏究

          문덕환,이승민,한용수,전진호,김대환,이용희,이창희 인제대학교 1995 仁濟醫學 Vol.16 No.2

          부산시내 지하상가의 공기 오염물질 중 인체에 인체에 대하여 유해한 것으로 알려진 SO2, NO2, TSP, CO, CO2의 농도를 조사하고 이러한 공기 오염물질에 영향을 미치는 온열인자인 온도, 습도, 기류, 평균 복사온도와 비교 고찰을 통하여 오염요인 등을 조사함으로써 공기 오염 물질들의 저감 대책 수립에 기초자료를 제공 하고자 함은 물론 시민들의 건강증진에 도움이 되고자 부산시내 일부 지하상가를 대상으로 하여 1994년 1월부터 2월까지 2개월간 지하상가 내.외부의 일중 농도를 측정하였다. For the purpose of preparing the fundamental data on air pollution in underground commercial floor and also contributing to the health improvement of residents, the authors measured the level of SO2, NO2, TSP, CO, CO2 and also some related factors as air temperature, air movement, relative humidity and mean radiation temperature at inside and outside of undergrouned commercial floor in Pusan from Jan. to Feb. 1994. The results were as follows : 1.The related factor of SO2 concentration in inside was SO2 concentration in outside(P<0.01). 2.The related factor of NO2 concentration in inside were air temperature in inside, total suspended particles and air movement in outside (P<0.05). 3.The related factors of total suspende particles in inside were relative humidity in inside and total susupended particles in inside (P<0.05). 4.The related factor of CO concentration in inside was air movement in outside(P<0.05). 5.The related factors of CO2 concentration in inside were air temperature and relative humidity in inside and air movement in outside(P<0.05).

        • 부산지역 일부 제조업 산업장의 작업공정별 공기중 특정 화학물질의 농도

          문덕환,김정호 인제대학교 1999 仁濟醫學 Vol.20 No.1

          특정 화학물질의 업종별, 작업공정별 사용 실태와 농도를 파악하기 위하여 부산시내 신평ㆍ장림공단에 소재하는 171개 사업장, 14개 업종, 29개 공정을 대상으로 특정화학물질인 암모니아(ammonia), 포름알데하이드(formaldehyde), 염화수소(hydrogen chloride), 디페닐메탄 디이소시아나이트(MDI), 페놀(phenol), 톨루엔-2, 4-디이소시아네이트(2,4-TDI) 및 황산(sulfuric acid)의 기중 농도를 1996년 1월 1일에서 1997년 12월 31일까지 2년 동안 측정하여 정량 분석한 결과는 다음과 같다. 암모니아, 염화수소, 페놀, 톨루엔-2, 4-디이소시아네이트에서는 허용농도를 초과하지 않았고, 포름알데하이드에서는 목재 및 나무제품 제조업(가구제외)의 샌딩공정에서 허용농도에 근접하는 비교적 높은 농도를 보였고, 황산에서는 조립 금속제품 제조업(기계 및 장비제외)의 수세공정에서, 디페닐메탄 디이소시아네이트에서는 가죽, 가방, 마구류 및 신발 제조업, 화합물 및 화학제품 제조업, 제1차 금속산업, 조립금속제품 제조업(기계 및 장비 제외), 자동차 및 트레일러 제조업의 발포공정에서 허용농도를 초과하였으므로 이들 공정에 대한 작업환경 관리가 특별히 요망된다고 사료된다. This survey was conducted to assess the status of the use of the specific chemical substances classified by types of working precess and industry. The subjected industry which dealed wish ammonia, formaldehyde, hydrogen chloride, diphenyl methane diisocyanate (MDI), phenel, toluene-2, 4-diisocyanate(2,4-TDI) and sulfuric acid was located in Sinpyeong-Jangrim industrial complex of Pusan area. The study period was from Jan. 1. 1996 to Dec. 31. 1997. The results were as follows ; Geometric mean concentration of ammonia, hydrogen chloride, phenol, 2,4-TDI in ambient air did not exceed the threshold limit values in all samples. Geometric mean concentration of formaldehyde was close to the threshold limit value in sanding process of manufacture of wood and of products of wood and cork (except furniture) industry. Geometric mean concentration in ambient air at breathing zone exceeded limit value in washing process of manufacture of fabricated metal products industry (except machinery and equipment) for sulfuric acid, forming process of tanning and dressing of leather industry (manufacture of luggage, handbag, saddlery harness and footwear), manufacture of chemicals and chemical products industry, manufacture of basic metals industry, manufacture of fabricated metal produces industry (except machinery and equipment), manufacture of motor vehicle industry, trailers and semi-trailers industry for MDI. A special attention to the management of working environment would be need to sulfuric acid and MDI in over-exposed working process.

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