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Background:Intercellular adhesion molecule(ICAM)-1 mediates cell to cell adhesion by acting as a receptor for leukocyte surface antigen. Increased ICAM-1 expression was observed in chronic inflammatory skin diseases, such as psoriasis, atopic dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis. Adenosine is an endogenous antiinflammatory agent released by cells under metabolically unfavorable conditions, recently the studies about antiinflammatory effects of adenosine in various tissues were increased, but there are few studies about the effect of adenosine on epidermal keratinocytes. Objective:We investigated the effects of adenosine on ICAM-1 expression in cultured human keratinocyte cell line HaCaT cells. Methods:Our study analyses the ICAM-1 expression in HaCaT cells by various stimulants and the effects of adenosine, adenosine receptor agonist & antagonist and an inhibitor of cellular adenosine uptake on ICAM-1 expression of cells stimulated by IFN-γ through the cell-ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) & FACS (fluorescence-activated cell sorter) analysis. Results:The results are summerized as follows: 1. ICAM-1 expression was significantly increased by IFN-γ(500U/ml), IFN-γ & TNF-α(10-8M) and IFN-γ & LPS(10-8M)(p$lt;0.05), but not by TNF-α, LPS and TNF-α & LPS. 2. Incubation of HaCaT cells with IFN-γ(1-2000U/ml) for 48 hours induced dose-dependent expression of ICAM-1 at above 500U/ml of IFN-γ. 3. Adenosine had no effect on ICAM-1 expression of unstimulated cells. 4. Adenosine(esp. 10-4M) significantly inhibited ICAM-1 expression of cells stimulated by IFN-γ(p$lt;0.01). 5. Adenosine(10-4M) significantly inhibited ICAM-1 expression of cells stimulated by IFN-γ(p$lt;0.01), IFN-γ & TNF-α(p$lt;0.05) and IFN-γ & LPS. 6. The inhibition of ICAM-1 expression was not observed when cells were preincubated with an adenosine A1 receptor agonist(R-PIA) or an adenosine A2 receptor agonist (NECA). 7. The inhibition of ICAM-1 expression of adenosine was not affected by pretreatment state with an adenosine A1 & A2 receptor antagonist(theophylline)(p$lt;0.01). 8. The inhibition of ICAM-1 expression of adenosine was not observed by pretreatment state with an inhibitor of adenosine cellular uptake (dipyridamole). Conclusion:High concentration of adenosine inhibits enhanced ICAM-1 expression on HaCaT cells by stimulated with IFN-γ and these inhibitory effects of adenosine are mediated through other adenosine receptors excect adenosine A1 and A2 receptors. And we suggest that there may be an unknown intracellular mechanism about inhibition of ICAM-1 expression via intracellular-uptaken adenosine.
Patch tests with patients' own cosmetics, cosmetic series type 17 and 18, and Hollister-Stier antigens were performed in 246 cases of suspected cosmetic contact dermatitis. The positive rates of patch tests with patients' own cosmetics, cosmetic series and Hollister-Stier antigens were 63.5% .56.8%. and 51.8% respectively. Cinamic alcohol, benzyl salicylate, jasmin abosolute, PPDA, ammoniated mercury, balsam of Peru were the most commonly identified antigens. Among the cosmetics, skin care products were dominant causes of the cosmetic contact dermatitis. The positive rate of foreign cosmetics was more than 1.4 fold higher than the domestic ones.
Background�Porokeratosis is characterized by cornoid lamellae histologically and evolve cutaneous malignant tumors in about 7% of the patients. Actinic keratosis is the most common premalignant lesion and progressed into squamous cell carcinoma in 20% of the patients. It has been reported that the expression of p53 increased within or beneath the cornoid lamellae of porokeratosis and actinic keratosis. Objective�The purpose of this study was to understand the role of apoptosis in pathogenesis and progression into malignant tumors and to investigate whether a positive correlation occurs between apoptosis index and expression of p53, bcl-2, PCNA and iNOS in porokeratosis and actinic keratosis. Methods�TUNEL staining and immunohistochemical staining with p53, bcl-2, PCNA and iNOS antibody were done in paraffin-embedded tissue sections of 10 cases of porokeratosis and 12 cases of actinic keratosis. Results�The results are summarized as follow: 1. The mean of apoptosis index(%) was 27.3�7.82 in porokeratosis, 36.3�10.32 in cornoid lamellae of porokeratosis. 2. The mean of apoptosis index(%) of actinic keratosis was 41.5�8.98 and statistically significant higher than that of porokeratosis(p=0.002). 3. Statistically significant correlatioin between p53 expression and apoptosis index was found only in porokeratosis(sig=0.046). Conclusions : Actinic keratosis more frequently evolves into malignant tumors than porokeratosis, which is supported by more higher apoptosis index than that of porokeratosis. The apoptosis and p53, rather than proliferation, may provide the pathogenesis and progression into malignant tumor in porokeratosis, but in actinic keratosis other apoptosis-related factors may be related.
A study was made on 1,210 cases of skin tumors which were diagnosed by histopathologic examination during the periods of 14 years and 6 months from January, 1975 to June, 1989 at Department of Dermatology, Ewha Womans University Hospital in Seoul. The results were summerized as follow ; 1) The 1,210 cases of skin tumors consisted of 1,020 cases(84.3%) of benign and 190 cases(15.7%) of malignant tumors, and male to female ratio was 1: 1.4. 2) Male to female ratio for benign tumors was 1:1.6 and for malignant tumors 1.3:1. 3) Among 1,020 cases of benign tumors, 257 cases(25.2%) originated from epidermis, 213 cases(20.9%) from melanocyte, 134 cases(13.1%) from epidermal appendages, 107 cases(10.5%) from fibrous tissue, 86 cases(8.4%) from vessel, 59 cases(5.8%) from nerve, 30 cases(2.9%) from fat tissue, 10 cases(1.0%) from smooth muscle and 126 cases(12.4%) from others. 4) Among 1,020 cases of benign tumors, the most frequent tumor was syringoma(69 cases) which was followed by epidermal cyst(67 cases), epidermal nevus(58 cases). seborrheic keratosis(58 cases), urticaria pigmentosa(52 cases), neurofibromatosis(50 cases). intradermal nevus(42 cases), pyogenic granuloma(39 cases), acquired bilateral nevus of Ota-like macules(37 cases) and others(530 cases) 5) The predilection sites were face(82.6%) in syringoma, head(40.3%) in epidermal cyst, extremities(41.4%) in epidermal nevus, face(60.3%) in seborrheic keratosis, trunk(78.8%) and extremities (73.1%) in urticaria pigmentosa, trunk and extremities(100%) in neurofibromatosis, face(40.5%) in intradermal nevus, extremities(43.6%) in pyogenic granuloma. 6) Among 190 cases of malignant tumors, 57 cases(30.0%) of basal cell carcinoma, 47 cases(24.7%) of squamous cell carcinoma, 17 cases(8.9%) of malignant melanoma, 15 cases(7.9%) of Bowen's disease, 15 cases(8.9%) of Paget's disease, 11 cases(5.8%) of mycosis fungoides, 10 cases(5.3%) of metastatic cancers and 16 cases(8.4%) of others were observed. 7) The average ages of patients with malignancies were 55.6 years in basal cell carcinoma, 56.2 years in squamous cell carcinoma, 54.4 years in malignant melanoma, 58.1 years in Bowen's disease, 58.2 years in Paget's disease, 57.8 years in mycosis fungoides, 53.3 years in metastatic cancers. 8) The predilection sites were face(93.0%) in basal cell carcinoma, head(51.5%) in squamous cell carcinoma, soles(52.9%) in malignant melanoma, tnunk(33.3%) in Bowen's disease, penis(60.0%) in extramammary Paget's disease, trunk and extremities(81.8%) in mycosis fungoides, trunk(60.0%) in metastatic cancers. 9) Among 10 cases of cutaneous metastatic cancers, primary sites were stomach in 4 cases, lung in 1 cases and unknown in 5 cases.
Accurnulation of keratinized cells within the infundibulum of pilosebaceous canal is important in the pathogenesis of acne. Light and electron microscopic study of experimentally induced comedones, from the rabbit's external ear canal, was performed to define the earIy morphologic changes within and around the epithelial lining of the comedones. In light microscopic observation, early comedone was composed of loose cohesive horny cells and late comedone was composed of a mixture of loose and tight cohcsive horny cells. Cohesion between horny cells occured, in eIectron microscopic study, in two different ways: initially, by the persistence of desmosomes; later, and to a lesser extent, by tight junctions, which tightly bound the horny cells together. Multiple lipid droplets within the horny ceIls and a gradual decrease in the numbrane coating granules were observed.
Histamine-induced cutaneous wheal responses were measured in 24 healthy subjects. The effect of the potent H_1 blocker, hydroxyzine HCI, the H_2 blocker, cimetidine, and the two drugs in combination was determined. The H_1 blocker alone produced a mean wheal suppression of 77%(p<0.005). The H_2 blocker alone produced a mean wheal suppression of 35%(p<0.01). The H_1 plus H_2 blocker produced 79% suppression. But the augmented suppression of H_1 plus H_2 blocker vs H_1 blocker was not statistically significant (p>0.05). The result provide evidence that H_2 receptors are present in the human cutaneous blood vessel, but additional studies must be performed to determine the significance of combined H_1 and H_2 blockade over H_1 blocker alone in suppression of histamine-induced wheal formation.
Cosmetics that are moderately to strongly comedogenic in the rabbit ear model test have been found to be capable of inducing comedones in human model. In humans the test cosmetics were applied under occlusion for 4 weeks to the scapular region of young adults. The degree of follicular hyperkeratosis was assessed by a noninvasive skin surface biopsy technique, employing a fast-setting cyanoacrylate adhesive to remove the follicular content. The rabbit model was more sensitive than the human. The test materials were applied once every day for 2 weeks onto the ventral surface of ear just external to ear canal. Excised tissue was thus immeresd in water at 60℃ for 2 minutes, yielding a sheet of epidermis with microcomedones attached. The magnitude of follicular hyperkeratosis was assessed under the stereomicroscope. High correlation between assay results of comedogenicity in humans and rabbits was found. So, it was concluded that rabbit ear assay is a simple and rapid method to assess the comedogenicity of cosmetics and other contactants.
Background : Propioriacterium acnes plays an important role in the development of inflammatory acne, and inflammatory lesions are improved by oral and topical antibiotics. But as P. acnes frequently develop resistance to antibiotics in patients receiving long-term systemic antibiotic therapy, the therapeutic effects diminish, and eventually therapy fails. Objective : The purpose of this study is to evaluate the general susceptability of P. acnes to antibiotics and the difference in the MIC depending on the use of oral and/or topical antibiotics, therapeutic effects and disease duration in patients with acne vulgaris. Methods : We used twenty-six strains of P. acnes which were obtained from patients with acne and performed susceptibility testing for antibiotics using the E test procedure. Results : 1. The growth of P. acnes was completely inhibited by e ythromycin and chloramphenicol at concentrations of 0.023ug/ml and 0.064ug/ml, respectively cefoxitin at 0.094ug/ml, and by tetracycline and clindarnycin at 0.190 ug/ml. 2. P. acnes was mot susceptible to erythromycin, and olwed by chloramphenicol, cefoxitin, tetracycline, clindamycin in order of decreasing susceptibilit . 3. There were no significant differences in the MIC in reat in to previous antibiotic treatment. 4. For tetracycline, The MIC was significantly lower(p$lt;0.01) in patients who improved after treatment. 5. For tetracycline and chloramphenicol, the MIC was significantly lower(p$lt;0.05) in patients with less than 2 years disease duration. Conclusion : The susceptibility of antibiotics for P. acne was highest in erythromycin. There were no significant differences in the MIC in relation to previous antibiotic treatment, and for some antibiotics the susceptibility was low in patients who did not show clinical improvement or who had long disease duration. (Kor J Dermatol 1995;33(3): 437-444)