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在語言敎學中, 敎育對象的確定是優先于方法論的, 竝是非常重要的環節. 但是, 我們韓國人由于所謂 '歷史的原因', 認識漢語的規範有所困難. 過去在我國與中國大陸隔絶的時期, 한국적한어교학주요의고태만류학적인. 因此, 韓國的漢語敎師比較熟悉台灣國語, 操用的漢語也多少受台灣國語的影響. 爲了正確地認識漢語的規範, 有必要對北京話, 台灣國語和普通話進行對比分析. 但是, 有關漢語規範問題上, 我們不能主觀地對待某種地區變體或社會變體, 而應該考慮是否符合學習, 實用的目的和需要. 本文是把使用範圍最廣的普通話作爲具體的規範的. 有不少人認爲北京話就是漢語的規範- 普通話. 雖然北京話是普通話的重要依據, 但也有不少土話的成分, 也存在着語音和詞彙的不同. 영외, 有些人認爲北京話好聽, 斯文, 但這也是非常主觀的判斷. 事實正與此相反, 北京人當中, 文化水平越低年齡越大, 北京話的色彩越濃; 北京人當中, 文化水平越高越年輕, 北京話的色彩越淡薄越接近普通話. 許多人認爲國語和普通話沒有本質上的差別. 但兩者之間除了名稱的不同以外, 還有實際內容的差異. 國語是民國初制定的規範, 普通話則是中華人民共和國成立以後, 經過幾次修正而制定的規範. 除此之外, 台灣國語是過去的漢語規範在台灣普及的過程中産生的一種過渡語, 主要表現在語音方面, 還包括一些方言詞彙和一九四九年後産生的新詞. 本文在第三章討論了國語, 台灣國語和普通話的異同, 語音上是可以出一些對應規律的. 但是漢字讀音及詞彙是沒有規律可尋的. 因此爲了解決這些問題, 首先有必要列出對此兩者的漢字讀音及詞彙的詳細目錄.
An confused word is a new concept defined by a synonym and a near synonym, starting from a non-native Chinese learner. Due to the influence of some factors such as mother tongue, the range of Chinese learning confused words varies from country to country, but it undoubtedly affects the learning and use of Chinese learners. This paper takes Korean Chinese learners as the research object, and analyzes the errors of Korean learners' “JingLi” and “JingYan” in the HSK dynamic composition corpus , and draws “JingLi” and “JingYan” for Korean learners. It is a confused word, and the type that is confusing is the conclusion of the single item type. Based on the results of Korean-Chinese comparison, this paper further analyzes the confusing reasons of “JingLi” and “JingYan” from four aspects: negative mother tongue migration, inaccurate dictionary annotation, insufficient target language rules and misleading other factors. Finally, the research on the confused words “JingLi” and “JingYan” is based on the analysis of words. It is hoped that through the analysis, the learners can accurately grasp the target language knowledge, reduce the influence of negative transfer of the mother tongue, and correctly distinguish the “JingLi” and “JingYan” to reduce the biased error. 易混淆词是区别于同义词和近义词,从汉语非母语的学习者出发定义的新概念。由于母语等一些因素的影响,不同国家的汉语学习易混淆词的范围各不相同,但无疑都影响汉语学习者汉语的学习和使用。本文以韩国汉语学习者为研究对象,通过对北京语言大学HSK动态语料库中韩国学习者“经历”与“经验”的错误进行分析,得出对于韩国学习者而言“经历”与“经验”是易混淆词,并且易混淆的类型是单项型的结论。基于韩汉语际对比的结果,本文进一步从母语负迁移、词典注释不准确、目的语规则掌握不足、其他因素误导四个方面对“经历”“经验”的易混淆原因进行详细分析。最后将易混淆词“经验”与“经历”的研究落脚于词语辨析,希望通过辨析帮助学习者准确掌握目的语知识,减少母语负迁移的影响,正确分辨“经历”与“经验”从而减少偏误。
漢語詞匯豊富,存在大量近義詞。這些近義詞大多帶有相同的語素,且在意義,用法上十分接近,如本硏究考察的“滿意”,“滿足”,僅憑漢語本族人語感,難以淸楚列出二者在意義,用法上的異同。大量近義詞漢語語言表達的豊富性,但對漢語作爲第二語言學習者來說,却增加了學習難度。 中韓兩國自古交流廣泛,韓國語中的“漢源詞”便是語言借用的最佳體現。韓國語中漢源詞“만족하다”其意義、用法大致對應漢語的“滿足”和“滿意”。韓國學習者受到母語的影響常混淆“滿足”、“滿意”這對近義詞。本硏究首先考察了工具書,漢語敎材,敎學大綱中對”滿意“、”滿足“的釋義情況,發現所考察的對韓漢語敎材,中韓韓中互譯詞典中,對“滿意”,“滿足”二詞的用法講解及詞意解釋,均存在“二對一”的現象。用相同的韓語詞解釋“滿意”、“滿足”,學習者會誤以爲二者沒有區別,更有可能導致二者的混用。 基于上述原因,本硏究具體又硏究了以下內容:首先,基于漢族人母語語料庫,從形式上歸納與“滿意”、“滿足”有關的語言形式,幷分析二者具體的意義、用法上的異同。然后以中介語語料庫爲硏究對象,考察韓國學習者對“滿意”、“滿足”兩個詞的習得情況。 本文希望通過上述硏究爲韓國學習者梳理漢語近義詞“滿意”,“滿足”在詞意及用法上的差異,通過韓國學習者“滿意”、“滿足”習得情況的考察對針對韓國學習者的漢語近義詞敎學提供可參考的依据。 Chinese vocabulary system is developed and there are lots of synonyms. Most of these synonyms have the same morphemes, and they are very close in meaning and usage. There are only very subtle differences, such as “滿意” and “滿足” in this study. It is difficult to make a clear list of the similarities and differences between the two in meaning and usage. A large number of synonyms are rich in Chinese language expression, but for Chinese as a second language learner, it will undoubtedly increase learning difficulty. Based on the above reasons, the following contents are included in this paper. First, based on the BCC corpus of Beijing Language and Culture University, 9 kinds of language forms related to “滿意” and “滿足” are summed up, and the similarities and differences between the meaning and the usage of the two words “satisfaction” and “satisfaction” in Chinese are analyzed. Second, Taking the interlanguage Corpus as the research object, this paper investigates the Korean learners’ acquisition of the two words “滿意” and “滿足”. Through the above study, this paper hopes to help Korean learners understand the differences in word meaning and usage of the Chinese synonyms “滿意” and “滿足” make a systematic analysis of the synonyms of “滿意” and “滿足” in order to provide reference for the teaching of synonyms in Korean and Chinese, and to provide some amendments to the compilation of the tool books, such as the Chinese - Korean dictionaries.
<P>This paper deals with the asymmetric aspects of ‘Hen Duo(很多)’ & ‘Hen Shao(很少)’ and their root causes. In modern Chinese, ‘Hen Duo(很多)’ and ‘Hen Shao(很少)’ can be used to modify adjectives, but their collocations with adjectives are quite asymmetric. Methodologically, we combine the explanations of syntax-semantics and cognition on the linguistic findings. Based on the structural descriptions, this paper reveals the motivations of asymmetry between ‘Hen Duo(很多)’ and ‘Hen Shao(很少)’, that the phenomenon of this asymmetry is related to people"s recognitive rules. Still, several questions are remain to be explored, we believe this study offers some insight into the problems.</P>
As international exchanges grow day after day, it has become even more important to understand the cultures of other countries and cultivate the ability of cultural communication as well as simple language skill development in Second Foreign Language Education. Language and culture are in inseparable relations in cultural exchanges with language being a part of culture and the carrier of culture. Since both Korea and China belong to the Oriental culture zone, they share many common cultural features. There are, however, differences between them at the same time. Those cultural differences lead to many cases of “vocabulary deficiency” and “semantic conflict” between Chinese and Korean. When people of different cultural backgrounds engage in communication, smooth communication will be impossible without cultural background knowledge. This study thus focused on “effects of cultural background knowledge in communication” as its topic. The present study collected total five volumes of “Thoughts and Characters,” a standard textbook used in the Chinese compulsory education curriculum for middle school students, which are the seventh grade to the ninth grade. It analyzed about cultural background knowledge. For analyzing cultural elements influencing communication between Korean and Chinese people on text book, the investigatorclassified and analyzed in details the phenomena of “vocabulary deficiency” and “semantic conflict,” which occur due to differences between their cultural elements, and examined problems happening in the process of language acquisition and education due to cultural differences. Finally, directions were proposed to improve those problems so that they could be applied to Chinese education. This study would help Korean students learning Chinese understand the Chinese language better and solve obstacles to their learning, thus they can understand rightly cultural elements influencing communication. 随着国际间交流的日益频繁,跨文化交际对第二外语教学提出了一个重要的任务,那就不仅仅要培养二语学习者的语言技能,更重要的是培养其跨文化交际的能力。在跨文化交际中语言与文化是密不可分的,语言是文化的一部分,是文化的载体。韩中两国同属东方文化圈,在文化上既有共同点,同时也存在着很多的差异,因此“词汇空缺”和“语义冲突”的现象十分普遍。文化背景不同的人在进行交际时,缺乏必要的文化背景知识会直接影响交际,形成障碍,因此影响跨文化交际的“背景文化知识”是本文重点研究的对象。 本文以汉语母语者所学的初中义务教育课程标准实验教科书『思想品德』七年级到九年级(共五册)为中心,对其中的背景文化知识进行了考察分析。首先在教材中选出影响韩中交流的背景文化因素,将其进行详细分类,并加以解释及对比分析,最后提出了几点有关教学的建议。其目的是为了帮助韩语母语者更好地理解汉语,消除学习障碍,以便充分认识和了解这些影响交流的背景文化因素,减少误会,提高跨文化交际能力,从而增强跨文化交际的能力。
The Study on Translation of zhuo(着) in Nogeoldae(老乞大) Maeng, Joo-oeck Zhuo(着) usually was a meaning word in ancient era, but it became a word of high frequency in early modern era through quick and drastic changes. So the translation of zhuo(着) was not simple. The most common difficulty was the rule about function words just like the particle of aspect. The concepts and usages of meaning words were consideravely easy for the translaters of Nogeoldae(老乞大).
The philologist Xu Shen, in Dong Han Dynasty, established the principle of “joining words according form” in Shuo wen jie zi. But some futurities mistook this principle. This paper ground argument on the statement that said by Wang Yun, the philologist in Qing Dynasty, in his book Shuo wen shi li. Try to clarified the different and wrong explanations of predecessors. And try to prove that the “form” in “joining words according form” just means “Xingfu” not “Dian hua jie gou” in three ways.