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      • KCI등재

        레슬리 마몬 실코의 『의식』: 체(Ts’eh)에 관한 연구

        류현주(Ryu, Hyun-ju) 신영어영문학회 2021 신영어영문학 Vol.79 No.-

        This study examines “Ts’eh” in Leslie Marmon Silko’s Ceremony as a major female character vital to Tayo’s healing process and completion of the ceremony, literally and figuratively. She is an incarnation of Yellow Woman, a representative feminine figure in Pueblo mythology who seduces but imbues a man with a life force to help him sustain and grow. In the same vein, Corn Woman/Mother exercises another mythological feminine power of life for Tayo. Ts’eh who lives in the base of Mt. Taylor, the sacred place with spiritual power, helps Tayo find Josiah’s cattles and recognize Pueblo heritages such as ceremonies, roots, plants and a she-elk rock painting. She also protects him from Emo’s bad intention to capture and send him away. She manifests physically Pueblo legends in yellow colors and related imagery supporting him to remember a cattle, a mountain, a woman and encounter the pattern of stars which Betonie visioned in the ceremony for Tayo. By doing these, she has upheld his quest for healing and awakening journey to regain mental and physical strength along with the medicine man’s ceremonial performance without influence of the witchery.

      • KCI등재

        특집 문학과 언어 : 문학의 주검과 매체 다각화

        류현주 ( Hyun Ju Ryu ) 현대문학이론학회 2010 現代文學理論硏究 Vol.0 No.42

        본 논문은 매체의 다양화로 기존 예술 장르가 발전하는 양상을 보이는 가운데 제기되는 문학의 죽음을 연구한 것이다. `매체`란 광범위한 의미로 도구, 매개 기능, 미디어 그리고 장르의 뜻까지 함축하여 사용하였다. 희곡 시나리오에 글로 쓰인 언어 매개는 같은 언어이기는 하나 말로 발화되는 매체로 변환되어 공연되면 연극이라는 다른 장르가 되듯이 매체는 이야기를 다른 장르로 전환시키는 기능을 가지고 있다. 이런 맥락에서 새로운 매체는 기존 매체를 `재매개`하는 것이다. 또한 이는 서사라는 것이 말과 글에 국한된 이야기의 한계를 넘어 `서사란 (우리에게) 보여주는 것`이다. 문학 죽음의 원인으로 흔히 영상 문화로 인한 독서 인구 감소를 말한다. 하지만 기술의 발전은 문학의 죽음보다는, 매체의 다각화와 콘텐츠의 다양화를 통한 이야기 향유 방식의 선택폭을 넓혔고, 문학의 외연을 확대하였다. 문학의 한계라고 간주된 매체인 언어가 애니메이션, 만화, 나아가 영화에도 들어있듯이 문학의 죽음을 논하는 사람들에게 이와 같이 문학은 다양한 양상의 콘텐츠를 통해 환생하고 있다. 장르와 매체, 그리고 기법이 다양해진 대중 문학, 순수 문학, 장르 문학, 전자(컴퓨터, 디지털) 문학 등, 여전히 문학이라는 것은 친근한 이야기보따리이다. 그것이 어떠한 형태를 취하든 문학의 중심에 일반 대중을 두지 않고 논할 수는 없다. 문학 가치와 대중적 인기가 동의어는 아니나, 근본적으로 독자 없이 문학이 어떻게 존재하겠는가. 사회 변화에 따라 작가의 무한한 상상력, 새로운 시도, 그리고 다변화되는 독자들의 취향 덕분에 문학의 지평은 확대되고 진화되어 왔다. 작가와 이론가들이 논의한 `문학이란 무엇인가`라는 화두는 `무엇이 문학을 문학으로 만드는가`하는 문학성(literariness)에 대한 문제였다. `문학이 왜 필요한가`라는 논의는 지금까지 합의점을 찾기는 힘들다. 문학을 둘러싼 질문들이 매우 추상적이고, 개인적이어서 부단히 논쟁을 생산한다. 그러나 독자들에게 문학은 `글`에 몰입하여 이야기를 즐기는 하나의 이야기 향유 방식이기에 문학은 계속 건재하다. 문학이란 `글로 표현된 예술`이라는 일반적 정의에서, `글`이라는 것도 사실 무엇인가를 읽고 쓰는 `문文`이다. 영어에서도 문학 `literature`과 글을 읽고 쓸 줄 아는 능력, 즉 식자 (識字) 정도를 나타내는 `literacy`는 어원이 모두 글을 뜻하는 `littera`로 같다. 그러나 `文`의 도구, 즉 기술적 측면 이전에 문학이란 `이야기`를 언어로 나타내는 예술 분야인 것이다. This article addresses controversial obsolescence of literature on the grounds that the age-old artistic genre evolves over different medium: I use this term `medium` in a broad context, encompassing tool, mediating function and media, even genre occasionally. Language, the basic tool of literature, can be considered medium and written words in drama can be converted into another medium(speech in stage performance) where medium mediates a story to q different genre. This can be also interpreted as "remediation"(Bolter & Grusin 1999) of a story with different medium. This is what medium is about in a sense of "narrative as a display"(Leitch 1986). Literature survives new technology to this time and actually thrives by expanding its horizon through different contents. Cultural contents projects are case in point in Korea. The contents industry has been nourished through increasing number of storytelling contests where literature (children`s story, essay, novel) is always included, not excluded from other contents medium such as animation, comic strips with storyboards and scenarios. To those who argue death of literature, literature is revived through diversified contents.

      • KCI등재

        로만 야콥슨의 번역이론과 영상번역 : 우리말 사용 실태를 중심으로

        류현주(Ryu Hyunju) 한국번역학회 2008 번역학연구 Vol.9 No.4

        This paper aims to examine Korean language uses in audiovisual translation or AVT with Roman Jakobson's definitions of translation. While general translation studies mainly concern interlinguistic translation, AVT has intralinguistic and intersemiotic perspectives as well, in subtitling and dubbing and film adaptation of a novel, respectively. In Korea, it is noteworthy that dubbing has been slowly increasing recently either for a star-marketing strategy or TV broadcasting. Hoodwinked! was unprecedentedly released in Korea as 100% dubbing version with 4 Korean celebrities(two actresses and two comedians) cast for voice. This contributed to a success of the box office yet exercising distorted domestication as it foregrounded the celebrities by overusing their trendy words and tones which were in vogue among Korean people. Along with this mode of vogue words, rude or offensive words are also rampant in a comedy genre. A Korean version of Madagascar allowed for all age group, meaning including children, has full of these language habits. Anything Else shows another problem in comedy AVT: too much English substitutes for Korean equivalents in the interlinguistic translation. The rationale behind these wrong Korean habits is problematic that they add fun and friendliness to help audience enjoy comedies more comfortably.

      • KCI등재후보

        커뮤니티 통역의 전문성 제고 방안

        류현주(Ryu Hyunju) 한국번역학회 2006 번역학연구 Vol.7 No.1

        This paper explores the issues we should address to acknowledge interpretation as a professional language service with an example of community interpreting in the US. Community interpretation is a public service allowing people who don't speak the language of the community to fully enjoy equal benefits in medical, legal and educational services. Therefore, community interpreters are required to be certified through formal training or approval of community interpreters association coupled with refreshing courses to provide quality service. A great majority of the interpreters work in a hospital or in legal settings such as an administrative hearing or/and a court. Professional community interpreting is well established in a multi-racial, multi-cultural and multi-lingual country like the US, but it is not a familiar term and is usually considered a synonym of unprofessional services provided by a self-acclaimed interpreter with foreign language knowledge. This erroneous concept is widening the demarcation between non-conference and conference interpretation. With a growing demand in language related services, an increasing number of private and public education providers have launched interpretation programs using the catchphrase of nurturing global language talents. Some are already expressing concerns about a bubble in the interpreting market. Community interpreting reveals what really matters for interpretation professionalism: the education goal and course designs based on a target interpretation market.

      • KCI등재

        번역투와 번역자투

        류현주(Ryu Hyunju) 한국번역학회 2009 번역학연구 Vol.10 No.2

        The present paper addresses translationese and translatorese. This issue is raised with the two points of departure: Can translatorese be considered identical with translationese?; Can translationese examplified in most of previous studies be generalised as "a systematic influence of STL on TTL"? The research shows that this is not always true with the two case observations--Korean translations of Don't Sweat the Small Stuff series(by Richard Carlson) and The Secret(by Rhonda Byrne)--in point. In a broad sense, translationese includes translatorese but translatorese does not always result in translationese, a "fingerprint" or "mark" of source text language on target text language. Translationese is a kind of dialects while translatorese is idiolect. With translationese becoming a part of normal standard language rapidly over time, some argue that it can make a creative, poetic contribution to enriching STL. This argument brings about another issue of poetic diction realized by poets' idiolects as well shown by Reynolds' essay, "Browning and translationese." As translationese usually carries negative connotation, Newmark uses a different term, 'interference,' to suggest some positive function of interlanguage. Meanwhile, translatorese always refers to as awkward uses of language in translated texts which are hardly found in non-translated texts.

      • KCI등재

        『사이버텍스트』번역 사례로 본 직역의 음역과 주석

        류현주(Ryu Hyunju) 한국번역학회 2007 번역학연구 Vol.8 No.1

        This paper aims to revisit the stigma of literal translation with my translation of Cybertext written by Espen J. Aarseth, a world famous Norway-born scholar. This book was published in 1997 by Johns Hopkins University and has become a must-read reference in the field of computer generated aesthetics. Since Cicero introduced a word-for-word translation, literal translation has been considered a synonym of unnatural translation. And on the same grounds, scholars of translation studies and even translators themselves seem to think highly of Nida's dynamic equivalents over formal ones in a blind manner. Aarseth addressed a variety of arts and disciplines including literature, semiotics, narratology, computer aesthetics with focus on computer games in the book. He introduced a slew of disciplinary jargons along with his own newly coined terms such as 'cybertext'(title) and 'ergodic literature'(subtitle). From a translator's perspective, it is quite challenging to convey this ST message clearly in proper TT equivalents. It is even no easy job to figure out all the pronunciations of the proper nouns he mentioned. This doubles challenges for a translator. In order to close the gap of languages and mutual background knowledge between a translator and target readers, I as a translator am supposed to provide transliteration and gloss. This daunting task is a good proof that literal translation is not that translator-friendly work as people might think. I made this point with my own TT translation examples of the ST. Literal translation itself is not a problem. There is a time that we do need this translation method sometimes realizing formal equivalents with glosses as my translation examples display. The only time that literal translation becomes a culprit behind awkward TT is when we use it excessively as a cure-all method.

      • KCI등재

        “빨간 모자” 다시쓰기의 상호텍스트성

        류현주(Hyun-Ju Ryu) 한국영미어문학회 2013 영미어문학 Vol.- No.111

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 9시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        This paper examines intertextuality from a perspective of rewriting concept in the two disciplines, translation studies and literature studies. The present research follows up my previous theoretical research on rewriting with examplary of Little Red Riding Hood to elaborate intertextual approaches in interlingual translation and creative writings. I applied Julia Kristeva's definition of a text for intertextuality. According to Kristeva, a text is not a product but a state of production, which implies that a text is open to continuous rewritings. The rewrites of the example fairy tale in the paper include but are not limited to the children story so the paper uses "Red Riding Hood(RRH)" as a motif or a source story. An English writer, Angela Carter translated a French version of RRH into English while expands the source text into separate short fictions with her creativity and imaginative twists of the fairy tale motif. These two kinds of intertextual rewrites always encounter with each other in a multi-dimensional literary space.

      • KCI등재후보

        판타지 소설의 의사 소통성과 쌍방향성

        류현주(Ryu Hyunju) 문학과영상학회 2003 문학과영상 Vol.4 No.2

        This paper explores a communication model and the interactivity of literature with a focus on the relationship between a fantasy novel and text-based games, or interactive fictions. Fantasy fictions have been discussed under the category of cyberspace literature in Korea. Though the term ‘cyberspace’ connotes computer-mediated or forms of computer-generated literature Korea’s electronic literature has focused on fantasy fictions which existed as printed forms for a long time. My argument is made on the premise that this genre be viewed as it is, and if it implies any relationship with cyberspace literature, it should be analyzed in the context of the interactive fictions or computer games based on texts. Printed narrative fictions have a communication model where a narrator sends a message to a narratee and the narratee interprets the message. Here a narratee’s action means reading and interpretation. This procedure is less interactive than communicative because narratees can interpret the same text differently yet can’t change the text itself. However, it is possible in interactive fictions as the games have different sequences depending on gamers’ different input, which is typing verbal texts on a computer keyboard. These games are played based on interaction between programming texts and players’ input. The major sources of early computer games borrowed their storyline, characters and a background from fantasy novels. The most frequently used source was The Lord of the Rings by J. R. R Tolkien, the granddaddy of the genre. Cases in point are 〈Dungeons and Dragons〉, 〈Zork〉 and even further today's online Multi-User Dungeons, or MUD games. In this regard, interactive fictions can be viewed as computer fantasy simulations where we can draw strong implications of a fantasy novel (communicativeness) and a computer game (interactivity).

      • KCI등재

        마르잔 사트라피의 『페르세폴리스』에 나타난 시각적 서사성

        류현주(Hyun ju Ryu) 한국영미어문학회 2016 영미어문학 Vol.- No.123

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 9시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        This research addresses visual narrativity in the case of Marjane Satrapi’s graphic novel, Persepolis. This novel is an autobiographical memoir about the Iranian-born author’s childhood and early 20s and a new form of literature ‘depicting’ a story with both image and text together, ‘visual narrativity’. In narrative studies visual narrativity refers to written images in traditional text-based novels and narrativity of visual images in paintings. Significantly, graphic novels combine these two aspects of visuality and narrativity. What matters in Satrapi’s artistic world is not its genre style but the storytelling medium as she ‘writes’ images and ‘draws’ a text. Moreover, this unconventional novel offers the pleasure of ‘reading’ the story as it ‘depicts’ Marji’s outcry for freedom and independence. In other words, the novel’s artistic and functional, visual narrativity is conducive for reader identification: Satrapi’s signature hand drawings in black & white and episodic structure as well as her compelling storytelling sprinkled with a good sense of humor. In summary, graphic novels help readers and scholars to transcend the boundary of novels, paintings, comics and revisit their natural process of appreciating narratives, “painting a picture,” literally and figuratively.

      • KCI등재

        안젤라 카터의 『피로 물든 방』에 나타난 늑대 모티프

        류현주(Ryu, Hyun-Ju) 신영어영문학회 2014 신영어영문학 Vol.57 No.-

        This paper explores a wolf motif in Angela Carter’s The Bloody Chamber with focus on wolf trilogy-The Werewolf, The Company of Wolves, Wolf-Alice. A wolf is a symbol of animal desire. He lingers not only in a forest but also in a girl’s mind. Therefore, a girl/woman is always destined to face a wolf in a forest called a society full of rape and violence. The Bloody Chamber is a gem of Carter’s innovative interpretation of fairy tales. In the trilogy, Carter twisted Little Red Riding Hood to show the latent meaning of the story. In the three rewrites of the tale, a girl is not a typical helpless victim sacrificed to a wolf. She is wise and strong-minded enough to fight against a wolf with her knife in a forest. She grows even empowered to tame a wolf and enjoy being together with him in her adolescent age with a help of a red hood, literally and figuratively.

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