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This study aims to present the effects that a bibliotherapy program based on picture books and paper craft art activities had on middle school students' stress recognition and the changes in their reactions. To this end, we adopted an experimental research design model with pre/post-test measurements of stress recognition and reactions using first grade middle school students with emotional difficulties. The results show that a bibliotherapy program based on picture books and paper craft art activities does have significant effects on the stress recognition and reactions of middle school students. The 5 of 5 sub-domains of the stress recognition had significant difference. The sub-domains are: family environment, friends, study, teacher/school. The 6 of 7 sub-domains of the stress reactions except fatigue had significant difference. The sub-domains are: tention, frustration, anger, depression, somatization, aggression. 본 연구는 중학생을 대상으로 종이조형을 활용한 그림책 독서치료프로그램을 실시한 후 학생들의 스트레스 인지와 스트레스 반응에 어떠한 영향을 미치는지 파악하고자 수행되었다. 이를 위하여 정서적 어려움을 겪고 있는 것으로 밝혀진 중학교 1학년 학생을 대상으로 연구를 수행하였다. 연구결과, 종이조형을 활용한 그림책 독서치료 프로그램은 중학생의 스트레스 인지와 스트레스 반응에 효과적인 것으로 나타났다. 스트레스 인지의 하위요인 중 가정환경, 친구, 학업, 교사/학교는 모두 통계적으로 유의한 차이가 나타났다. 스트레스 반응의 하위요인에서는 피로를 제외하고 긴장, 좌절, 분노, 우울, 신체화, 공격성에 통계적으로 유의한 차이가 나타났다.
Objective: The aims of this study were to determine the impact peak force and kinematic variables in running speed and investigate the relationship between them. Method: Thirty-nine male heel strike runners (mean age=21.7±1.6 y, mean mass=72.5±8.7 kg, mean height= 176.6±6.1 cm) were recruited in this investigation. The impact peak forces during treadmill running were assessed, and the kinematic variables were computed using three-dimensional data collected using eight infrared cameras (Oqus 300, Qualisys, Sweden). One-way analysis of variance ANOVA was used to investigate the influence of the running speed on the parameters, and Pearson's partial correlation was used to investigate the relationship between the impact peak force and kinematic variables. Results: The running speed affected the impact peak force, stride length, stride frequency, and kinematic variables during the stride phase and the foot angle at heel contact; however, it did not affect the ankle and knee joint angles in the sagittal plane at heel contact. No significant correlation was noted between the impact peak force and kinematic variables in constant running speed. Conclusion: Increasing ankle and knee joint angles at heel contact may not be related to the mechanism behind reducing the impact peak force during treadmill running at constant speed.
Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the peak torques of the knee and ankle joint and local stability of the lower extremity's joints, and muscle activation patterns of the lower extremity's muscles between fallers and non-fallers in the elderly women during walking. Method: Four elderly women (age: 74.5±5.2 yrs.; height: 152.1±5.6 cm; mass: 55.3±5.4 kg; preference walking speed: 1.19±0.06 m/s) who experienced falls within six months since experiment had been conducted (falls group) and thirty-six subjects (74.2±3.09 yrs.; height: 153.6±4.9 cm; mass: 56.7±6.4 kg; preference walking speed: 1.24±0.10 m/s) who had no experience in falls (non-falls group) within this periods participated in this study. They were measured torque peaks of the knee and ankle joint using a Human Norm and while they were walking on a treadmill at their natural pace, kinematic variables and EMG signals were collected with using a 3-D motion capture system and a wireless EMG system, respectively. Lyapunov Exponent (LyE) was determined to observe the dynamic local stability of the lower extremity's joints, and muscles activation and their co-contraction index were also analysed from EMG signals. Hypotheses between falls and non-falls group were tested using paired t-test and Mann-Whitey. Level of significance was set at p<.05. Results: Local dynamic stability in the adduction-abduction movement of the knee joint was significantly lower in falling group than non-falling group (p<.05). Conclusion: In conclusion, muscles which act on the abduction-adduction movement of the knee joint need to be strengthened to prevent from potential falls during walking. However, a small number of samples for fallers make it difficult to generalize the results of this study.
Objective: The goal of this study was to determine the center of pressure (CoP) complexity pattern in approximate entropy technique between genders at different conditions of running speed. Background: It is conducted to evaluate the complexity pattern of CoP in the increment of running speed to have insights to injury prediction, stability, and auxiliary aids for the foot. Method: Twenty men (age=22.3±1.5 yrs.; height=176.4±5.4 cm; body weight=73.9±8.2 kg) and Twenty women (age=20.8±1.2 yrs.; height=162.8±5.2 cm; body weight=55.0±6.3 kg) with heel strike pattern were recruited for the study. While they were running at 2.22, 3.33, 4.44 m/s speed on a treadmill (instrumented dual belt treadmills, USA) with a force plate, CoP data were collected for the 10 strides. The complexity pattern of the CoP was analyzed using the ApEn technique. Results: The ApEn of the medial-lateral and antero-posterior CoP in the increment of running speed showed significantly difference within genders (p<.05), but there were not statistically significant between genders at all conditions of running speed. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, CoP complexity pattern in the increment of running speed was limited to be characterized between genders as an indicator to judge the potential injury and stability. Application: In future studies, it is needed to investigate the cause of change for complexity of CoP at various running speed related to this study.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of increased running speed on the magnitude of impact shock attenuation in high frequency (9~20 Hz) at support phase on the treadmill running. Method: Twenty-four healthy male heel-toe runners participated in this study. Average age, height, mass, and preference running speed were 23.43±3.78 years, 176.44±3.38 cm, 71.05±9.04 kg, and 3.0±0.5 m/s, respectively. Three triaxial accelerometer (Noraxon, USA) were mounted to the tuberosity of tibia, PSIS (postero-superior iliac spine), and forehead to collect acceleration signals, respectively. Accelerations were collected for 20 strides at 1,000 Hz during treadmill(Bertec, USA) running at speed of 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, and 4.0 m/s. Power Spectrum Density (PSD) of three acceleration signals was calculated to use in transfer function describing the gain and attenuation of impact shock between the tibia and PSIS, and forehead. One-way ANOVA were performed to compare magnitude of shock attenuation between and within running speeds. The alpha level for all statistical tests was .05. Results: No significant differences resulted for magnitude of the vertical and resultant impact shock attenuation between the tibia and PSIS, and forehead between running speeds. However, significant differences within running speed were found in magnitude of the vertical shock attenuation between tibia and PSIS, tibia and forehead at speed of 2.5, 3.0 m/s, respectively. Conclusion: In conclusion, it might be conjectured that muscles covering the knee and ankle joints and shoe's heel pad need to strengthen to keep the lower extremities from injuries by impact shock at relatively fast running speed that faster than preferred running speed.
Genetic polymorphisms associated with aggressive periodontitis have previously been reported. Interleukin-10 is an immunoregulatory cytokine that plays a role in the pathogenesis of periodontitis. Individual capacity for IL-10 production appears to be under genetic influence, The aim of present investigation was to explore possible genetic association of IL-10 gene promoter polymorphisms with generalized aggressive periodontitis. The study population consisted of 37 generalized aggressive periodontitis patients from the Department of Periodontology, Chonnam National University Hospital and 27 control subjects, all the subjects were non-smokers, Genomic DNA was obtained from buccal swab. The IL-10promoter -597, -824, -1082 positions were genotyped by amplifying the polymorphic regions using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) , followed by restriction enzyme digestion and gel electrophoresis. IL-10-597 C (allele 1) to A (allele 2) and IL-10-824 C (allele 1) to T (allele 2) and IL-10-1082 G (allele 1) to A (allele 2) polymorphisms were examined. The results were as follows. 1. In patients, the distribution of genotypes C/C, C/A and NA at Il-10-597 was determined to be 13.5%, 37.8% and 48.7%, respectively and the distribution of genotypes at IL-10-824 was the same as that of IL-10-597. The distribution of genotypes G/G, G/A and NA at IL-10-1082 was found to be 2.7%, 16.2% and 81. 4%, respectively. No statistical difference in genotype distribution was found between the patient and control groups. 2. Allele 2 carriage rate at the three position of the IL-10 promoter region was higher in the control group than the patient group. 3. Allele 2 frequencies at IL-10-597 and -824 positions were higher in female group than male group and its difference was statistically significant(p<0.05). No significant difference in genotype distribution between the control and patient groups. Allele frequency between control and patient groups was not significantly different although allele 2 frequency at the three positions in the IL-10 promoter region appeared to be higher in control group. In conclusion, no clear association between IL-10 gene promoter polymorphisms and generalized aggressive periodontitis in Korean was observed.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the periodicity of shank-foot segment coupling and free torque before and after fatigue induced by prolonged running. Method: Fifteen young healthy male participants with a rear-foot strike ran on instrumented dual-belt treadmills at 70% of their maximum oxygen uptake for 65 min. Kinematic and ground reaction force data were collected for 20 continuous strides at 5 and 65 min (considered the fatigued condition). The approximate entropy tool was applied to assess the periodicity of the shank internal-external rotation, foot inversion-eversion, shank-foot segment coupling, and free torque for the two running conditions. Results: The periodicity of all studied parameters, except foot inversion-eversion, decreased after 65 min of running (fatigued condition) for 80% of the participants in this study. Furthermore, 60% of the participants showed similarities in the change of periodicity pattern in shank internal-external rotation, coupling, and free torque. Conclusion: The findings indicated that the foot inversion-eversion motion may pose a higher risk of injury than the shank internal-external rotation, coupling, and free torque in the fatigued condition during prolonged running.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between center of pressure (CoP) and local stability of the lower joints, which was calculated based on approximate entropy (ApEn) during walking in elderly women. Method: Eighteen elderly women were recruited (age: 66.4±1.2 yrs; mass: 55.4±8.3 kg; height: 1.56±0.04 m) for this study. Before collecting data, reflective marker triads composed of 3 non-collinear spheres were attached to the lateral surface of the thigh and shank near the mid-segment to measure motion of the thigh and shank segments. To measure foot motion, reflective markers were placed on the shoe at the heel, head of the fifth metatarsal, and lateral malleolus, and were also placed on the right anterior-superior iliac spine, left anterior-superior iliac spine, and sacrum to observe pelvic motion. During treadmill walking, kinematic data were recorded using 6 infrared cameras (Oqus 300, Qualisys, Sweden) with a 100 Hz sampling frequency and kinetic data were collected from a treadmill (Instrumented Treadmill, Bertec, USA) for 20 strides. From kinematic data, 3D angles of the lower extremity's joint were calculated using Cardan technique and then ApEn were computed for their angles to evaluate local stability. Range of CoP was determined from the kinetic data. Pearson product-moment and Spearman rank correlation coefficient were applied to find relationship between CoP and ApEn. The level of significance was determined at p<.05. Results: There was a negative linear correlation between CoP and ApEn of hip joint adduction-abduction motion (p<.05), but ApEn of other joint motion did not affect the CoP. Conclusion: It was conjectured that ApEn, local stability index, for adduction/abduction of the hip joint during walking could be useful as a fall predictor.
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본 연구는 질적 연구 방법으로서 콜라주가 지니는 효과와 가능성을 살펴보는 것을 목적으로 하였다. 이를 위해 한국 다문화 아동의 삶을 총 8점의 콜라주로 표현하고, 같은 내용을 다룬 텍스트와 비교함으로써 그 차이점과 효과를 살펴보았다. 그 결과 기존의 이미지를 선택하고 재구성하는 콜라주는 직관적 특성을 지니며 텍스트의 논리적 사고에서 벗어나 새롭게 주제를 인식하게 한다는 것을 알 수 있었다. 그리고 콜라주의 시각적 이미지는 사실적인 느낌을 통해 현실에 대해 정서적으로 깊이 공감하게 할 뿐만 아니라 다양한 해석과 생각을 이끌어내고 촉진하는 계기를 제공해 주는 효과가 있었다. 이 같은 콜라주의 효과는 질적 연구 방법으로서 충분한 가능성을 확인시켜주었으며 더 많은 후속 연구를 기대한다. This research was the first effort to transform the qualitative data called “Bongsik's life” into collage in Korea. Even though there has been much discussion and researches on the collage representation of qualitative data in the West, it is new and unfamiliar to Korean research community. Thus, one of the authors who's academic background is oil painting carefully read the text collected from other researcher whose academic background is curriculum studies in multicultural education and transformed the total 30 page-long text of life history of an elementary school student called Bongsik. Since he was raised and educated under multicultural parents (unemployed Korean father and Filipina mother), the researchers thought that the boy's educational and developmental issues and problems in Korean context would be better represented through image/collage form rather than literary text. The researchers hope that the collage work of Bongsik's life story will be improved through further academic discussion and criticism.
군수품 최초양산품 품질관리는 연구개발 이후 최초로 양산 계약된 군수품을 대상으로 개발 후 완성된 규격에 따라 개발품의 양산 실현 가능성과 적합성 평가를 목적으로 수행한다. 하지만 본 연구를 수행하기 이전까지 최초양산품 품질관리는 하드웨어 중심으로 수행되어 소프트웨어에 대한 품질관리는 미흡한 상태였다. 이로 인해, 후속 양산단계에서 소프트웨어의 문제점들이 발견됐을 경우 불가피한 기술변경에 따라 많은 시간과 비용이 소요되었다. 이와 같은 문제점을 사전에 방지하기 위해 최초양산품 SW 규격자료의 완전성 확보 방안으로 최초양산품 소프트웨어 품질관리기술을 개발하였다. 또한, 최초양산품 소프트웨어 품질관리 기술에 적용 가능한 최초양산 소프트웨어 검증 프로그램을 개발하여 검증 소요 시간 단축 뿐만 아니라 정확한 검사 결과를 제공한다. 따라서, 본 논문에서는 효율적인 군수품 SW 품질관리를 위한 최초양산품 SW 규격자료 완전성 확보 방안 연구로 최초양산품 품질관리 기술과 본 기술에 적용가능한 최초양산품 SW 규격자료 완전성 검증 프로그램을 개발하였으며, 본 연구로 후속양산 기술변경 감소에 따른 비용절감 및 적기 전력화에 기여할 수 있음을 보인다.