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Room temperature powder spray in vacuum process, so called Aerosol deposition (AD) is a room temperature (RT) process to fabricate thick and dense ceramic films, based on collision of solid ceramic particles. This technique can provide crack-free dense thin and thick films with thicknesses ranging from sub micrometer to several hundred micrometers with very fast deposition rates at RT. In addition, this technique is using solid particles to form the ceramic films at RT, thus there is few limitation of the substrate and easy to control the compositions of the films. In this article, we review the progress made in synthesis of piezoelectric thin/thick films, multi-layer structures, NTC thermistor thin/thick films, oxide electrode thin films for actuators or sensor applications by AD at Korea Institute of Materials Science (KIMS) during the last 4 years.
BiFeO3 (BFO) multiferroic materials in the crystalline phase require very delicate processing conditions. In order to fabricate a high quality BFO thick film, aerosol deposition (AD) was employed and the phase evolution and multiferroic properties of the film were investigated for different annealing temperatures. A BFO thick film annealed at 500 °C had a dielectric constant of 80 at 1 kHz and possessed ferroelectric characteristics. At an applied electric field of ~900 kV/cm, the remaining polarization and coercive field (Ec) were approximately 7.5 μC/cm2 and 370 kV/cm, respectively. In addition, the BFO thick film fabricated via AD and annealed at 500 °C showed weak ferromagnetic behavior between -1250 Oe and +1250 Oe and was saturated at the higher magnetic field strength, showing ferromagnetic behavior.
Generalized pustular psoriasis(GPP) is an uncommon and severe form of psoriasis. The possible provocative factors such as steroid therapy, infection, stress, drugs, pregnancy, sun exposure, and metabolic disorders were reported. Among them, corticosteroid therapy is thought to be the most common factor. Although the cause of psoriasis remains obscure, the coexistence of psoriasis and autoimmune disease and cyclosporin accepted for the treament of psoriasis emphasize the importance of immunologic mechanism in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. We present a case of GPP in a 48-year-old male, who has had a history of myasthenia gravis since the age of 34 years and managed with long-term corticosteroid therapy. With the administration of acitretin and cyclosporin, generalized pustular eruptions nearly cleared and clinical improvement was achieved. (Korean J Dermatol 2003;41(3) : 367∼370)
Many surgeons have tried to reduce the skeletal relapse and temporomandibular discomfort resulted from inproper postoperative condyle position when has been known as a major complication of orthognathic surgery of mandibular prognathism, especially sagittal split ramus osteotomy. In the case of early anterior openbite, it has been known that postoperative condyle position is the most important factor concerned with relapse. Many studies to reduce these complications have been reported by reproducing the preoperative condylar position. Generally, if the condyle is fixed at the antero-inferior position, the early anterior openbite might be resulted from the lever action on the most posterior tooth by movement of condyle to physiologically stable position when the intermaxillary fixation is released. This study was carried out to elucidate whether the condyle could be positioned in the physiologically stable position by using the modified splint. Surgical wafer splint was manufactured in the condition that condyle of articulator was first moved anteriorly 1.73mm, inferiorly 1mm, and then occluded. The effects of the modified splint to early occusal stability and relapse was evaluated by physical examination and radiographic landmarks of cephalometrics. The results were as follows: 1. The usage of the modified splint helped the occlusal stability and reduced the rate of early anterior openbite. 2. It was acceptable for clinical application in aspects of temporomandibular discomfort. 3. Posterior openbite has rapidly compensated by the usage of the modified splint, and it was advantage to the prevention of early relapse. 4. The usage of the modified split resulted in the tendency of slightly anterior rotation of proximal segment, but it helped the repositioning of condyle into preoperative position. 5. It contributed to the occlusal stability by reducing anterior tooth movement, which was derived from compensational action of postoperative relapse. 6. The degree of inadvertent anteroposterior rotation of the proximal segment at surgery was correlated with the early skeletal relapse. These results suggest that the proximal segment fixation technique by using the modified splint have advantages to reduce the early skeletal relapse. This technique could be effectively used to the patients who had no facial asymmetry and do not need maxillary movement.