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        茶船古道與六堡茶的历史文化

        袁柳(Yuan, Liu), 趙紀貞(Cho, Kee-jung) 중국인문학회 2019 中國人文科學 Vol.0 No.72

        The article primarily discusses the origin of the name of Liu Pao Tea, Liu Pao tea's disseminating channels of the Ancient Tea Boat Road(茶船古道), and the referred history and culture. At the end of the 19th century, Chinese society was turbulent and people were living in difficulties. With the exploitation of the western colonizers in Malaysia, particularly Tin mining, led a significant amount of farmers to migrate from the areas of Fujian(福建), Guangdong(廣东)and Guangxi(廣西)of China to Southeast Asia. Consumed by these Chinese farmers, Liu Pao Tea was named as the “Labor's Tea” and started to travel to Southeast Asia. During this gradually flourishing period of Liu Pao Tea, the Ancient Tea Boat Road(茶船古道), was shaped by the trade waterways which were from the original place Liu Pao village(六堡乡)Hekou, through Wuzhou(梧州)Xijiang River(西江), Guangzhou(廣州)Zhujiang River(珠江), and Hong Kong in China, to Malaysia and Singapore. This unique history endows Liu Pao Tea with a rich meaning of culture,and Liu Pao Tea becomes a knot of the cultural identity of the consumers of overseas Chinese labors with Cantonese background. The recognition and fondness of Liu Pao Tea imply the attitudes of “Cherishing the present happiness through recalling the past bitterness” and seeking a healthy and aesthetic lifestyle.

      • KCI등재후보

        特別寄稿論文 : 魏晉玄學的言意之辯與劉協意象論的關係

        김원중 ( Won Joong Kim ), 유효홍 ( Xiao Hong Liu ) 한국사상문화학회 2009 韓國思想과 文化 Vol.50 No.-

        魏晉南北朝時期는 경학이 쇠퇴하면서 여러 가지 사상이 다시 대두하기 시작하였는데 특히 晉代에 玄風이 성행하면서 허무를 숭상하고 세상을 피하는 소극적 은둔사상이 신속하게 발전하기 시작하였다. 正始 年間에 王弼과 何晏을 비롯한 일련의 사상가들은 노장사상에 입각하여 유가의 경전을 해석하였으니, 우리는 이런 사상을 玄學이라고 한다. 이 현학은 통치자들 뿐만 아니라 상당수의 지식인들의 사유체계와 시대적 분위기를 반영하는 시대조류로 확인되어 죽림칠현이 출현하는 등 사회적 관심사가 되었던 것이다. 특히 이들은 노장 계열의 언어관, 즉 언어는 개인의 사상을 다 표현하기 힘들다는 명제를 적극 수용하면서 문학 창작에 있어서 언어와 사고의 관계에 관한 적지 않은 논의를 야기 시켰으며, 이런 관점을 우리는 言意之辯이라고 한다. 주지하는 바와 같이 劉協은 南朝의 齊梁年間에 살았으므로 이미 현학의 전성기가 지나간 시기에 해당되어 얼핏 보기에 이런 시대 조류와 무관한 시대를 살다간 것처럼 보인다. 그러나 그는 문학사상의 영역에서 현학의 적지 않은 영향을 받아 그의 대작 ≪文心雕龍≫에는 현학의 상당한 흔적을 찾아볼 수 있다. 물론 그의 주된 사상이 儒家思想이면서 道佛의 영향을 받은 복합적인 면모를 고려하면 더욱 그러하다. 유협은 이미 현학이 함축하고 있는 시대와의 불화에 주목하면서도 그 현학이 갖는 문학적 사유의 주요한 측면인 언어와 사고의 관계에 주목했다는 점이다. 역설적이지만 우리는 위진의 현학으로 야기된 문학의 좋지 않은 실제 창작스타일에 대해 유협이 매우 비판적이라는 점도 인정한다. 그러면서도 우리가 간과해서는 안 될 사안은 유협은 현학의 부정적 측면을 비판하면서도 그에 영향을 받은 당시의 작가들의 창작과 이론에 상당한 의미를 부여하면서, 특히 현학의 중심 화두이기도 한 言意의 문제를 적극 수용하여 문학 창작이론의 핵심 사안으로 삼았다는 점이다. 우리가 ≪文心雕龍≫을 보면 적지 않은 부분에서 玄理를 문학이론의 영역으로 끌어들여 자신의 문론을 전개하는 것을 보면 그가 문학 창작론의 첫머리인 `神思` 편을 중심으로 전개하는 `언부진의`론의 문제가 충분히 논의할 만한 가치가 있는 것으로 평가된다. 그가 이 책의 저술 동기에서도 말한 바있듯이 꿈에서도 공자를 볼 정도라는 그가 문학의 원론은 원도, 징성, 종경을 내세우면서 다시 창작론에서는 `言不盡意`론을 수용한다는 것은 모순적인 것으로 볼 수도 있다. 본고를 통해 필자는 유협이 말하고자 하는 意象이란 言、象、意 세 가지 가 반드시 유기적으로 융합하여 탄생한 것이라는 점을 주목했다는 점에 주목하면서, 유협이 言意關係에 대해 논의함에 있어 주로 혜康 등의 言不盡意論과 王弼의 得意忘言論을 기초로 삼으면서 歐陽建의 言盡意論도 고려하는 절충의 방식으로 이들이 자신의 의상론과 연계되어 있다는 사실을 검토하였다. 유협은 언어와 의상의 이원론에 입각하면서도 의상론에 있어서 언어의 작용과 효용이 매우 크다는 점을 확실히 인지하였던 것이다. 그 주된 관점은 주로 言意관계를 言、象、意라는 세 가지 측면으로 분리하여 "象"이 言意의 사이에서 갖는 中介性을 강조하고 있다는 사실도 본고를 통해 확인되었다. 유협이 말하는 "象"은 곧 意象이며 이는 문학 창작 중에 객관사물이 작자의 두뇌 속에서 존재하는 형상이다. 여기서"객관사물"이란 실체가 있고 구체적인 것이지만, 두뇌속의 형상은 비어있고 추상적인 것이다. 이 두 가지가 결합한 `의상`은 이 양자 사이에 존재하는 제 3의 공간이다. 이런 면에서 볼 때 유협이 의상의 작용을 중시하여 "獨照之匠, 窺意象而運斤"(<神思>篇)이라든지 "神用象通, 情變所孕"(<神思>篇)라고 한 것은 그가 언의지변과의 영향을 받은 것인 동시에 아울러 그의 의상론과의 관계를 입증시켜 주는 중요한 예다. 유협이 제시한 이론은 자칫 원론적인 면에서 그 한계를 드러낸다고 볼 수 있으니, 그가 문학창작의 실제적 과정 속에 존재하는 다양한 문제점에만 주목하고 그 실제적인 해결 방안모색에는 소홀했다는 점에 우리는 그 아쉬움을 지적하지 않을 수 없다. As all people know about it, Liu xie was largely affected by Profound learning which is included in his masterpiece Wen Xin Diao Long. Profound learning is His literature theory especially notes Confucian ideas and has comprehensive aspects in that Taoism and Buddhism had an effect on it. However, Profound learning had bad effects on literature and we can infer that Liu xie had critical perspective on this atmosphere. Namely, in unique circumstances of profound learning, Liu Xie was not included in these ideas and made this theory more comprehensive by taking advantages and complaining disadvantages among these ideas. Furthermore, when we read Wen Xin Diao Long, we can notice that he made his own literature theory by taking Profound learning in many sections. The viewpoint, which we cannot express own ideas, is main point of the theory of creating literature. Liu xie noted that Imaginative power of the author is comprised of language, image, idea. There is famous saying of Wang bi; When we acquire idea, we immediately forget language. Liu xie changed this to his theory of creating literature. The bottom line is that Liu xie segregated relation between language and image, then formed it as language, idea, and image. He emphasizes the connection between language and image. The image he says is verbal image and this is the formation existing in the brain of the author when creating literary works. In conclusion, objective subject author tries to express is tangible and concrete. Meanwhile, the image in the mind of the author is nonobjective. Liu xie regarded Verbal image comprised of the two as the third space between both things. We cannot help noting that he did not endeavor to find out actual method to solve but notice various problems.

      • KCI등재

        《浮生六記》追憶空間的建構與沈復的下層文人心態

        LIU,CHANG 한국중국어문학회 2019 中國文學 Vol.100 No.-

        The academia has always maintained a strong interest in Fu Sheng Liu Ji since it was known to the world. However, current studies mostly focused on English versions translation, classification of works genres, the Image of the heroine Chen Yun, and depicting, which based on content of the works, the life of the lower literati in the mid-Qing Dynasty, yet no systematic discussion on the characteristic construction of memorial space has been carried out. Although real life was used as writing material, a careful reading will reveal that Shen Fu, the author, had the memories significantly split and reassembled, which was achieved through the repetition of fragmentary memory spaces. The intentionally constructed characters of these memory spaces, along with their combinations, and the mentality of the lower literati in the mid-Qing Dynasty are all worthy of further study, these aspects and their relations were discussed in this paper. The second chapter summarized, classified and described the types of memory spaces in the works. Two typical memory spaces were appeared, semi-closed dotted space and open linear space. The former was mainly in Gui Fang Ji Le and Xian Qing Ji Qu while the latter was in Kan Ke Ji Chou and Lang You Ji Kuai. The following discussion was on Shen Fu's deliberately disconnecting the time chain, and the narrative ways of categorizing and linking these memory spaces. The third chapter revealed the mentality of the lower-class literati in the mid-Qing Dynasty, which hidden behind the special construction mode of Shen Fu's memory spaces, was believed as a "active marginalization", and specifically manifested in defending the private space, as well as resisting the social space. Therefore, the paper holds that Fu Sheng Liu Ji is not a record of Shen Fu's life, but a deliberate cutting and reorganizing of the memory spaces, and his active marginalization mentality contributes to the construction of such groups of memory spaces. 《부생육기(浮生六記)》가 발견된 이래, 학계는 줄곧 그에 대해 끊임없는 관심을 가지고 연구를 해 왔다. 그러나 기존의 연구 대부분은 번역본과, 작품 장르의 분류, 여주인공 진운(陳 芸)의 이미지, 작품의 내용으로부터 청나라 중기 하층 문인들의 삶을 조명하고, 묘사하는 등이러한 것에 대해서만 치중해왔다. 사실상 《부생육기》는 실제의 인생을 소재로 삼지만, 텍스트를 자세히 읽어보면 작가 심복(沈復)의 실제 기억을 편집하고, 이는 단편적인 기억공간의재현을 통해 이뤄진다는 것을 알 수 있다. 의도적으로 만들어진 공간들 자체의 특징, 이들 간의 조합 형식, 그리고 그 속에 드러난 청나라 중기 하층 문인들의 심리상태는 깊이 연구할만한 가치가 있는 요소들인데, 본문에서 이 몇 가지 요소에 대해 논의하고자 한다. 2장에서는 먼저 작품 속 추억의 공간 유형을 분류, 묘사하고자 한다. 전형적인 추억의 공간인 반폐쇄형 점 모양의 공간, 열린 형 선 모양의 공간 두 가지가 등장한다. 전자는 주로 앞의 《규방기락(閨房記樂)》과 《한정기취(閒情記趣)》에 나오는데, 후자는 뒤의 《감가기수(坎坷記 愁)》와 《랑유기쾌(浪遊記快)》에 나온다. 이어 심복에 의해 의도적으로 시간의 사슬을 끊고, 이들 추억의 공간을 분류한 후, 다시 연계하는 서술 방식에 대해 검토한다. 3장에서는 심복의특별한 추억의 공간을 구축하는 방식 뒤에 숨어 있는 청 중기 하층 문인의 모습을 보여줌으로써 폐쇄적이고 안정된 사적 공간을 지키는 것을 의미하는 ‘자발적 주변화'의 심리를 구현할것이다. 그래서 《부생육기》는 자신의 삶에 대한 실록이 아니라, 의도적으로 기억공간을 분류하고 재구성한 작품이다. 그리고 심복의 ‘자발적 주변화'라는 심리가 이러한 공간을 구축하게된 것이라고 할 수 있다.

      • KCI등재후보

        柳宗元의 古賦 硏究

        류재윤(Liu Jaeyoon) 중국인문학회 2017 中國人文科學 Vol.0 No.65

        This paper is a study on six works of rhapsodies which were written by Liu-zongyuan during the period of exile. Ancient rhapsodies contained a lot of lyricism. Liu-zongyuan, using the style of ancient rhapsodies, expressed his feelings and disaffections that came from the living of exile. In his six works, he indicated some of misconducts made by villainous retainers, but lots of his classical rhapsodies consist of the contents of melancholy stress pain and unsatisfaction about his exile life. All of rhapsodies researched in this paper are ancient style of rhapsodies originated by Quyuan. Using the style and character of ancient rhapsodies, he manifested his misfortune and unsatisfactory feelings of being exiled.

      • KCI등재

        《浮生六記》追憶空間的建構與沈復的下層文人心態

        劉暢 ( Liu Chang ) 한국중국어문학회 2019 中國文學 Vol.100 No.-

        The academia has always maintained a strong interest in Fu Sheng Liu Ji since it was known to the world. However, current studies mostly focused on English versions translation, classification of works genres, the Image of the heroine Chen Yun, and depicting, which based on content of the works, the life of the lower literati in the mid-Qing Dynasty, yet no systematic discussion on the characteristic construction of memorial space has been carried out. Although real life was used as writing material, a careful reading will reveal that Shen Fu, the author, had the memories significantly split and reassembled, which was achieved through the repetition of fragmentary memory spaces. The intentionally constructed characters of these memory spaces, along with their combinations, and the mentality of the lower literati in the mid-Qing Dynasty are all worthy of further study, these aspects and their relations were discussed in this paper. The second chapter summarized, classified and described the types of memory spaces in the works. Two typical memory spaces were appeared, semi-closed dotted space and open linear space. The former was mainly in Gui Fang Ji Le and Xian Qing Ji Qu while the latter was in Kan Ke Ji Chou and Lang You Ji Kuai. The following discussion was on Shen Fu's deliberately disconnecting the time chain, and the narrative ways of categorizing and linking these memory spaces. The third chapter revealed the mentality of the lower-class literati in the mid-Qing Dynasty, which hidden behind the special construction mode of Shen Fu's memory spaces, was believed as a "active marginalization", and specifically manifested in defending the private space, as well as resisting the social space. Therefore, the paper holds that Fu Sheng Liu Ji is not a record of Shen Fu's life, but a deliberate cutting and reorganizing of the memory spaces, and his active marginalization mentality contributes to the construction of such groups of memory spaces.

      • KCI등재SCOPUS

        TR-PIV measurement of separated and reattaching turbulent flow over a surface-mounted square cylinder

        Liu,Liu,SHI,Ying,Zheng,LIU,Jin,Jin,WAN 대한기계학회 2010 JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY Vol.24 No.1

        The separated and reattaching turbulent flow over a surface-mounted two-dimensional square cylinder was experimentally studied by using time-resolved particle image velocimetry (TR-PIV). A total of 61,440 instantaneous image frames were acquired at a framing rate of 125 Hz, yielding a reliable result of the statistical quantities. The time-averaged features of the separated and reattaching flow were analyzed in terms of distributions of the velocity vectors, vorticity, the streamwise velocity fluctuation intensity and shear stress. The association between the large-scale vortical structures and spatial variation of these time-averaged quantities were thoroughly discussed. The unsteady features of the flow were revealed from distributions of the reverse-flow intermittency, space-time contour plot of the fluctuating streamwise velocity, and cross-correlation of the streamwise velocity. Subsequently, a comprehensive understanding of the contribution of the flow structures into the fluctuating flow field was gained by using a snapshot proper orthogonal decomposition (POD)analysis. The results showed that the linear combination of the first five POD modes, which capture 57% of the fluctuation energy, was capable of representing the large-scale behaviors of the separated and reattaching turbulent flow in the senses of spectrum, instantaneous feature and spatial variation of the velocity fluctuation intensity.

      • KCI등재

        Identification of QTLs associated with the anaerobic germination potential using a set of Oryza nivara introgression lines

        Licheng,Liu,Xiaoxiang,Li,Sanxiong,Liu,Jun,Min,Wenqiang,Liu,Xiaowu,Pan,Baohua,Fang,Min,Hu,Zhongqi,Liu,Yongchao,Li,Haiqing,Zhang 한국유전학회 2021 Genes & Genomics Vol.43 No.4

        Background Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is an important crop and a staple food for half of the population around the world. The recent water and labor shortages are encouraging farmers to shift from traditional transplanting to direct-seeding. However, poor germination and slow elongation of the coleoptile constrains large-scale application of direct-seeding. Objective This study was aimed to investigate the genetic basis of the anaerobic germination (AG) potential using a set of Oryza nivara (O. nivara) introgression lines (ILs). Methods In this study, a total of 131 ILs were developed by introducing O. nivara chromosome segments into the elite indica rice variety 93-11 through advanced backcrossing and repeated selfing. A high-density genetic map has been previously constructed with 1,070 bin-markers. The seeds of ILs were germinated and used to measure coleoptile length under normal and anaerobic conditions. QTLs associated with AG potential were determined in rice. Results Based on the high-density genetic map of the IL population, two QTLs, qAGP1 and qAGP3 associated with AG tolerance were characterized and located on chromosomes 1 and 3, respectively. Each QTL explained 15% of the phenotypic variance. Specifically, the O. nivara-derived chromosome segments of the two QTLs were positively tolerance to anaerobic condition by increasing coleoptile length. In a further analysis of public transcriptome data, a total of 26 and 36 genes within qAGP1 and qAGP3 were transcriptionally induced by anaerobic stress, respectively. Conclusions Utilization of O. nivara-derived alleles at qAGP1 and qAGP3 can potentially enhance tolerance to anaerobic stress at the germination stage in rice, thereby accelerating breeding of rice varieties to be more adaptative for direct-seeding.

      • KCI등재SCOPUS

        In Vitro Evaluation and Monitoring of the Expression Level and Localization of Aldose Reductase Using Functionalized Quantum Dots and EGFP

        Xiaomin,Liu,Chengbin,Yang,Jing,Liu,Jianwei,Liu,Rui,Hu,Hongwei,Lian,Guimiao,Lin,Liwei,Liu,Ken-Tye,Yong,Ling,Ye 한국생물공학회 2015 Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering Vol.20 No.4

        The optimization of aldose reductase (AR) expression levels and tracking of the AR expression sites within the cell is an essential step in developing a platform for the effective production of aldose reductase inhibitors (ARIs). In this study, we have demonstrated the use of both immunocytochemistry and quantum dots-based immunofluorescence techniques for observing and detecting the expression level and localization of AR in the cytoplasm and cell membrane of a eukaryotic cell model with high levels of AR protein expression. Our results show that high expression levels of human AR can be achieved using the eukaryotic cell model that we have developed. The overexpressed AR can be used for translational studies of hAR and the screening of ARIs. More importantly, the use of the established quantum dots-based immunofluorescence technique in the intracellular labeling of AR allows the determination of the expression and distribution of the AR gene. Overall, the use of the interdisciplinary approach of both genetic engineering and quantum dot-based immunofluorescence allows not only the effective production of a desired protein, but also the determination of the cellular localization of such an expressed protein.

      • KCI등재

        Enumeration of three kinds of rooted maps on the Klein bottle

        Wenzhong,Liu,Yanpei,Liu 한국전산응용수학회 2007 Journal of applied mathematics & informatics Vol.24 No.1

        In this paper, 2 essential rooted maps on the Klein bottle arecounted and an explicit expression with the size as a parameter is given.Further, the numbers of singular maps and the maps with one vertex onthe Klein bottle are derived.AMS Mathematics Subject Classication: 05C45.Key words and phrases : 2 essential map, singular map, enufunction.1. IntroductionEnumeration of non-planar maps has been initiated in the 1960s by Brown [3].On the object, some scholars did some inuential works such as Bender et al. [2],Arqu`es [1], Gao [4] and Liu [79], only name a few. In this paper, enumeratingformulae of three kinds of rooted maps on the Klein bottle are obtained byinvestigating g essential maps with the small genera which play an importantrole in the study of general maps on surfaces.The article begins with some denitions. Terms without description can beseen in [7-9].LetX = {x1,x2 · ,xn} be a set andK = {1,β,γ}, the Klein group,i.e.,α2 = β2 = γ2 = 1, where γ= = . F o rx ∈X, Kx = {x,αx,βx,γx}.Ifthe permutationP on X (X)=n.i=1Kxi = X satises the following conditions:for anyl ∈N and any x ∈ X, Plx .=αx, αP = P1 and the group ψτgenerated byτ= {α,β,γ} is transitive onX , and thenM =(X,P) is called amap.If a map M = (X,P) has an element, theroot denoted by r = r(M ), inXmarked beforehand, thenM is called arooted mapand the marked edge is calledthe root-edgeofM . Likewise theroot-vertexand the root-faceare clear. In thisReceived November 24, 2005.Corresponding author.1 Supported by NNSFC under Grant 603730308 and 10571013.c. 2007 Korean Society for Computational & Applied Mathematics and Korean SIGCAM .411412 Wenzhong Liu and Yanpei Liupaper, maps always mean rooted . ForM = (X,P), the root, the root-vertex,the root-edge and the root-face ofM are denoted by r(M ),vr(M ),er(M ) andfr(M ) respectively.A surfaceΣ here is a compact close 2 manifolds. Anorientable (nonori-

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        Immunomodulatory Properties of Lactobacillus plantarum NC8 Expressing an Anti-CD11c Single-Chain Fv Fragment

        Liu,,Jing,Yang,,Guilian,Gao,,Xing,Zhang,,Zan,Liu,,Yang,Yang,,Xin,Shi,,Chunwei,Liu,,Qiong,Jiang,,Yanlong,Wang,,Chunfeng The Korean Society for Microbiology and Biotechnol 2019 Journal of microbiology and biotechnology Vol.29 No.1

        The lactic acid bacteria species Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) has been used extensively for vaccine delivery. Considering to the critical role of dendritic cells in stimulating host immune response, in this study, we constructed a novel CD11c-targeting L. plantarum strain with surface-displayed variable fragments of anti-CD11c, single-chain antibody (scFv-CD11c). The newly designed L. plantarum strain, named 409-aCD11c, could adhere and invade more efficiently to bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs) in vitro due to the specific interaction between scFv-CD11c and CD11c located on the surface of BMDCs. After incubation with BMDCs, the 409-aCD11c strain harboring a eukaryotic vector pValac-GFP could lead to more efficient expression of GFP compared with wild-type strains shown by flow cytometry analysis, indicating the enhanced translocation of pValac-GFP from L. plantarum to BMDCs. Similar results were also observed in an in vivo study, which showed that oral administration resulted in efficient expression of GFP in both Peyer's patches (PP) and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) within 7 days after the last administration. In addition, the CD11c-targeting strain significantly promoted the differentiation and maturation of DCs, the differentiation of $IL-4^+$ and $IL-17A^+$ T helper (Th) cells in MLNs, as well as production of $B220^+$ $IgA^+$ B cells in the PP. In conclusion, this study developed a novel DC-targeting L. plantarum strain which could increase the ability to deliver eukaryotic expression plasmid to host cells, indicating a promising approach for vaccine study.

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