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N/A Objective: Advanced atherosclerotic lesion consists mainly of intimal smooth muscle cell proliferation. Many factors are considered to be implicated in this process. The role of locally produced angiotensin II as a potent growth stimulus had been investigated. To evaluate the effect of ramipril, a new converting enzyme inhibitor, on the smooth muscle proliferative process this animal study was performed, Ramirpil was selected because of its unique physicochemical properties. Methods: Forty nine male New Zealand White or Chinchilla rabbits were randomly assigned to four groups: Group I (N=5), normal control; Group II (N=12), 2% cholesterol diet feeding without vascular injury; Group III (N =16), 2% cholesterol diet feeding after vascular injury; Group IV (N=16), ramipril treated group. Bilateral femoral atherosclerosis was induced by endothelial damage using desiccated nitrogen gas followed by a 4-week high cholesterol diet (2%-cholesterol & 6%-peanut oil). Ramipril, dose of 1 mg/kg/day, was given from 7 days before injury. Results: No definite atherosclerotic lesion was found in group II rabbits, But atherosclerotic lesion with intimal enlargement was induced in all group III & IV rabbits. The lesions were made of abundant cellular components, collagen fibers, & elastic fibers. The presence of intimal smooth muscle cells was confirmed by the immunohistochemical staining with muscle-specific monoclonal antibody HHF-35. Occasionally the foam cell lesions were scattered in the media as well as in the intima. There was frequent disruption of internal elastic lamina. Luminal area, neointimal area, media area, & ratio of intima to media were examined from the histologic sections of the femoral artery. There was no significant difference in all parameters between group I & group II rabbits. But between group I & group III rabbits was there significant difference in all 4 parameters. The same relationship was also found between group II & group III. So it was apparent that the hypercholesterolemic diet for 4 weeks alone could not induce atherosclerotic lesion in this animal model. The luminal area was not significantly different between group III & group IV. (0.10±0.08mm2 vs. 0.11±0.08mm2; p>0.05). The neointimal area of ramipril treated group was significantly smaller than that of group III rabbits (0.56±0.36mm2 vs. 0.17±0.12mm2; p<0.01). The media area was also smaller in ramipril treated group (0.34±0.17 mm2 vs. 0.22±0.06 mm2, p<0.05). The radio of neointima area to media area was higher in group III (1.67±0.80 vs. 0.76±0.44; p<0.01). Conclusion: This rabbit-desiccation injury-cholesterol diet model proved to be useful for the study of atherogenesis. Ramipril was considered to inhibit the intimal smooth muscle cell proliferation in this animal model.
N/A In order to observe the frequency of mechanisms of paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT) in Korea, we analyzed the electrophysiological findings of 59 patients with PSVT induced by programmed electrical stimulation on our electriphysiologic laboratory. We also compared the surface ECG and clinical findings according to the mechanisms of PSVT. The results were as follows: 1) Atrioventricular reentry (AVR) was the most common mechanism of PSVT (72.9%) and atrioventricular nodal reentry (AVNR) the second (16.9%). The remainder were intraatrial reentry (1.7%) and increased automaticity of the atrium (8.5%). 2) The age of the patients and their heart rates during tachycardia were not significantly different among the mechanisms of PSVT. 3) Functional bundle branch block during tachycardia appeared more frequently in the AVR group than the other groups (p<0.05). 4) The relationship between P wave and QRS complex during tachycardia was useful in differentiating the mechanisms of PSVT. 5) The ventriculoatrial interval on His bundle electrogram was less than 50 msec in the AVNR group, where as this interval was greater than 70 msec in the AVR group.