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A study was conducted to develop a new analytical method to quantitate chicken dietary fiber (CDF). Four types of grain diets and 2 types of forages were used. Three broiler chicks at eight weeks of age were used in the Latin square design to estirnate the in vivo digestibility. Six quantitative analytical methods (Southgate method, total dietary fiber or TDF, acid detergent fiber or ADF, neutral detergent fiber or NDF, crude fiber or CF) including CDF were compared in this study. ADF, NDF and CF contained the lowest amount of the unavailable carbohydrate(UC). The value of TDF was higher than the values of ADF, NDF and CF and lower than CDF and the Southgate method. The value of NDF showed the lower values than the CDF, Southgate fiber and TDF. The recovery rate of the fiber in the feces was high in the TDF, ADF, NDF and CF, while CDF and Southgate fiber showed lower recovery rates. TDF, NDF, ADF, or CF can replace chromium in the digestibility test, while the CDF and Southgate fiber can not replace chrorniurn. The digestibility of TDF, NDF, ADF and CF in the chicken showed negative values or values close to zero depending on the types of feed but the digestibility of CDF and Southgate fiber showed relatively high positive values.
??? gas Sensors were fabricated by firing the mixture of SnO₂and Th(NO₃)₄, Their electrical properties sensitivity characteristics to gases have been investigated. The mixture of 95 wt.% SnO₂and 5 wt.% Th(NO₃)₄fired at 600℃ for 1 hour showed the highest sensitivity to ??? gas. It is suggested that they could be used as the elements of ??? gas detecting apparatus.
TFEL device was fabricated using ZnS phosphor and BST insulator layer, in this study. ZnS:Mn, ZnS:Tb and ZnS:Ag phosphor were fabricated, and the thin films of these phosphors were stacked on substrate by thermal evaporation. The BST films was fabricated by magnetron sputtering. Using these conditions, TFEL device was fabricated. Here luminescent threshold voltage was 65 Vrms and maximum brightness was 3200 ㏅/㎠. At device using not encapsulated phosphor, threshold voltage was 120 Vrms and maximum brightness was 350 ㏅/㎠. Electroluminescence spectum peaks was shown at 460, 500, 550 and 590 ㎚.
BST thin films were fabricated on the ITO/glass by using BST ceramic target and rf magnetron sputtering method. We fabricated the BST thin films with changing substrate temperatures from room Temp. upto 500℃, investigated electrical, structural, and optical properties, and analyzed to apply the TFELD. BST thin film as an applicant for insulating layer of the TFELD must have lower leakage current, higher relative dielectric constant, breakdown voltage, and optical transmittance. The characterizations of the crystalline and relative dielectric constant of BST thin films were better done with increasing substrate Temp., but the leakage current was increased. Since these opposite characterizations, BST thin film of the most applicable to TFELD is of opinion that is to be fabricated at substrate Temp. of 400℃. BST thin film fabricated at this Temp. has a characterizations of lower leakage current, higher relative dielectric constant, and breakdown voltage.
나 에서 증식되는 곰팡이류는 여러가지 종류의 독소(Mycotoxin)를 곡류사료나 에 유발시켜서 가축에게 직접 간접으로 피해를 입히고 있으며 이 는 에 지대한 피해를 입히고 있음은 오래 전부터의 일이다. 그러나 나 에 남아 있는 mycotoxin을 하는 은 상당히 최근부터 된 일이다. 아직도 하고 값싼 을 찾아내기 위해 많은 가 각처에서 이다. 여러가지 값비싼 기계들이 mycotoxin의 에 될 수 있으나 적은 으로 처음 하는 에서는 TLC가 경제성은 물론 그 에서도 상당한 정도까지 해 낼 수 있다. Aflatoxin의 경우 TLC으로 각각의 Aflatoxin을 만족할만한 적은 수준까지 해 낼 수 있으며 Zearalenone의 경우 컬럼 크로마토 그러피를 샘플 추출에 이용하면 TLC의 정확도는 0.1ppm까지 이 하다. Ochratoxin A 경우도 진동의 정도를 하게 하면 TLC로 만족할만한 이 가능하며 T-2 toxin 의 경우 50ppb까지 이 가능하다.
본 시험은 broiler performance, litter N농도가 어떻게 유지되며, NH3 gas 농도가 사료에 ammino acid와 Vitamin D를 보충하여 litter에 Alum을 첨가하여 저수준 단백질 수준을 감소시키는지 결정하기 위해 실시하였다. 이 실험은 각각 처리마다 3반복 90마리를 세가지의 다른 단백질 수준을 가지고서 starter period(1-21d)와 grower period(22-42d)로 나누었다. 단백질처리는 각기 starter에는 평균 23.0(control T1), 20.4(T2)와 18.0(T3)%로 grower에서는 21.0(control T1), 19.3(T2) and 17.0(T3)%로 구성된다. Control과 비교하면 ammino acid 수준은 비슷하다. Alum은 rice bran ㎏당 200g에 Control이하인 저수준 단백질은 feed gain은 증가하였으며, feed intake와 weight gain은 감소하였다. 그러나 처리간에는 유의차(P<0.05)가 없었으며 Alum을 litter에 혼합할 때(P<0.05) 저수준 단백질은 NH3 gas농도가 74.8-80.9% 감소되었다.<br/> litter에 Alum을 첨가하는 조작은 NH3 gas농도를 감소시킨다는 것을 보여준다. An experiment was conducted to determine how broiler performance, feces and litter concentration of N can be maintained and whether NH3 gas concentration can be reduced with reducing dietary CP, adding ALUM(AL2(SO4)3.14H2O) in litter and supplementing with amino acid and vitamin D in feed. The experiment was divided into a starter period(l to 21d) and grower period(22 to 42d), each having three different CP with 90 birds per treatment of 3 replications. The CP treatments consisted of a mean CP of 23.0(control Tl), 20.4 (T2) and 18.0 (T3) % for starter and 21.0( control Tl), 19.3 (T2) and 17.0 (T3) % for grower, respectively, but with similar amino acid levels as the control. Alum was mixed in each treatment except control treatment with 200g in kilogram litter(rice bran) weight. Results suggested that reducing CP below control in the diets fed during 3wks and 6wks slightly increased feed gain and slightly decreased feed intake and weight gain. However, there were no significant difference among treatments. Reducing CP caused NH3 gas concentration to decline by 74.8 - 80.9% when Alum was mixed in litter(P < 0.05). Litter N concentration did not show any difference(P > 0.05) among treatments. These results suggest that dietary manipulation with adding Alum in litter show for significant reducing NH3 gas concentration while maintaining acceptable production performance from broiler
Of the 200, 000 known species of molds, only 50 or 60 are known to be harmful to humans or livestock. Certain fungi that grow on grains and grasses can produce chemical substances called mycotoxins that adversely affect performance in poultry. There are several methods of preserving feed ingredients. The list includes: drying, antioxidants, mold inhibitors, organic acids, phosphates, cooking or toasting, fat extraction, blending and fermenting. Mold inhibitors are manufactured to inhibit mold growth and prevent the production of toxic substances. They are fungistats and not fungicides, that is, they only stop the growth of molds. Practical and cost-effective methods to detoxify mycotoxin containing feedstuffs are in great demand. 0.5% hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate added to the diet protected chicks from the deleterious effects of aflatoxin-contaminated feed. The dietary addition of antioxidants and methionine also significantly diminished the negative effects on body weight in chicks toxicated with 3.0 ppm aflatoxin B1.