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          『위대한 개츠비』에 나타난 대중문화 담론

          남기헌 ( Ki Heon Nam ) 한국현대영미소설학회 2013 현대영미소설 Vol.20 No.3

          F. Scott Fitzgerald openly denounced popular literature for its obscenity and vulgarity. Nevertheless, his work willingly engages in the popular discourses of the Jazz Age. This paper focuses on how popular culture operates in constructing Fitzgerald`s The Great Gatsby. The cover jacket of the first edition of The Great Gatsby published in 1925 includes an Art Deco style drawing of a woman with big eyes in the sky over an amusement park made bright with electric lights. The cover is emblematic of Fitzgerald`s keen awareness of emergent arts and innovated technology, both of which are deeply related to the advent of modernism. References to popular culture continue and abound in The Great Gatsby. For example, the colossal advertisement of T. J. Eckleburg signifies the pervading dominance of advertising industry. Many characters also recognizes the persuasive force of commodity culture along with advertising. Myrtle is the female consumer who emulates celebrities and their fashions advertised in such popular magazines as Town Tattler, a typical scandal magazine of the 1920s. Gatsby`s schedule is written on the last fly-leaf of Hopalong Cassidy, a popular novel based on the frontier cowboy. Along with Dan Cody, whose name combines Daniel Boon with Buffalo Bill Cody, this novel represents the secularization of the frontier spirit. Fitzgerald also makes a reference to a popular novel titled Simon Called Peter, which is related to a murder case which took place in 1921. Without a doubt, Nick writes a book--perhaps a biography or fiction--about Gatsby, as an author-narrator and a character. Nick`s choice of the epithet “great,” however, must be considered along with “characters” found in popular culture, such as Hadji Ali, the “Great Magician of Egypt.” Other associations that Fitzgerald tried to make include his tentative title for the novel, “Trimalchio in West Egg,” which obviously implies a negative view of Gatsby`s lifestyle. Thus, Gatsby`s “greatness” becomes ironical when measured against references to popular culture.

        • KCI등재후보
        • KCI등재
        • KCI등재

          “Dirty Cleans”: 조이스, 음란성, 그리고 검열

          남기헌 ( Ki Heon Nam ) 한국제임스조이스학회 2011 제임스조이스저널 Vol.17 No.1

          This paper deals with the problem of censorship in regard to Joyce`s Ulysses, not only in his time, but also in our time. The Throwaway Horse Project initiated a series of webcomic versions of Joyce`s Ulysses. It became so famous that the Apple company allowed the iPad version of this webcomic to be sold only if some part of the obscene descriptions were modified. In the end, the Apple company was forced to succumb to the protest. The serialization of Ulysses in the Little Review through Ezra Pound was suppressed because of its obscene contents in America. The New York Society of the Suppression of Vice waged a crusade against obscene literature, which is supposed to smudge the innocent minds of the young. In 1935, Judge Woolsey`s decision salvaged Joyce`s Ulysses from being condemned as obscene. But it is true that Joyce must have intended to include obscene materials in his work. Why? The answer is: Joyce must have been aware of the dominance of pornography along in commodity culture. Joyce`s inclusion of pornographic novels and erotic picture cards makes his work ``obscene,`` which strategically undermines the edifice of Victorian discourses of purity and hygiene. Joyce tries to be honest about his sexual desire, which is embodied through a character, Leopold Bloom, whose sexual perversity is supposed to be embraced as ``normal.`` Although so many characters in ``Circe`` denounce Bloom`s perversity, they reveal their own sexual fantasies. In a scene of hanging the Croppy Boy, a kind of metamorphosis of Robert Emmet, a radical nationalist, those ladies in the high society of England run to sob the sperm emitted by the hanged man. By scattering pornographic novels and erotics pictures throughout Ulysses, Joyce attempts to show his awareness of the transition of sexual discourses and criticizes the repressive hypothesis of the period in which he lives. Joyce deploys obscene materials as a Trojan horse to attack the Victorian idealization of prudence and reticence about sexuality. He must have been aware that the distinction between high culture of classicism and popular culture of pornography will be blurred. So his inclusion of obscene materials in Ulysses is his aesthetic strategy.

        • KCI등재

          폐차처리 과정의 자동인식 기술 도입 경제성분석

          남기헌 ( Ki Heon Nam ), 장태우 ( Tai Woo Chang ), 박진우 ( Jin Woo Park ) 한국로지스틱스학회 2010 로지스틱스연구 Vol.18 No.2

          자원 고갈과 폐기물 처리가 사회적 이슈가 되고 있고, 그에 대한 기업의 책임도 확대되고 있다. 본 연구는 폐자동차 처리 과정에 자동인식 기술을 도입하는 것을 제안하고, 기술 도입에 따른 경제적 타당성을 확인하기 위해 시뮬레이션을 통한 정량적인 분석을 수행하였다. 자동인식 기술을 도입함으로써 정보 추적에 따른 고객의 신뢰도 증가, 재사용부품의 정확한 잔존가치 측정을 통한 이익 증가 등이 가능하다. 시뮬레이션 결과에 따르면, 자동인식 기술의 도입에 따라 재사용부품의 판매가 증가하고 재사용 및 폐기 비용이 감소하였다. 또한 고객 불만 비용과 기회비용이 감소하였다. 추가적으로 개별 요인이 성능에 미치는 영향을 알아보기 위해 감도분석을 수행하였다. 본 연구의 시뮬레이션 모형은 자동인식 기술을 도입하고자 할 때 유용하게 사용될 것으로 판단되며, 대부분의 RFID 기술이 공급사슬관리를 중심으로 응용되는 현 상황에서 연구 범위의 폭을 넓히는 계기가 될 것으로 기대된다. As depletion of natural resources and disposal of waste matter become social issues, the responsibility of the companies extends to the product recovery and disposal. In this study, we proposed adoption of automated identification technologies in End-of-life Vehicle (ELV) management process. And we conducted a quantitative analysis and simulation to figure out the economic feasibility of the implementation of the automated identification for the solutions we proposed. By implementing the automated identification technologies, customer reliability is increased due to the information tracking. And the profit is maximized as the estimation for the salvage value of the ELV parts becomes more accurate. Based on the results of the simulation studies, sales for the reusable parts are increased and the costs for reusing and disposing are decreased due to the implementation of the automated identification technologies. And the customer dissatisfaction costs and opportunity costs are decreased. Besides, we conduct the sensitivity analysis to figure out the effect of each factor that affects on the system performance. We believe that the simulation model is very helpful for the companies who try to implement the automated identification technologies in their system. Also, this study broadens the study field of the RFID application in the situation that the most of RFID application studies are focused on the supply chain management.

        • KCI등재
        • KCI등재
        • KCI등재

          성인의 증세가 있는 부주상골

          이우천,남기헌,박현수,라종득,이철,고강훈,Lee,,Woo-Chun,Nam,,Ki-Heon,Park,,Hyun-Su,Rha,,Jong-Deuk,Lee,,Cheol,Ko,,Kang-Hoon 대한족부족관절학회 2001 대한족부족관절학회지 Vol.5 No.1

          Purpose: to investigate the etiology and the results of surgical treatment of the symptomatic accessory navicular in adults. Materials and Methods: Between 1996 and 2000, 17 cases in 16 adult patients who were older than 20 years were diagnosed as painful accessory na vicular. 11 patients could recall a twisting injury of the ankle, and 8 of them were inversion sprain. 4 patients had tibialis posterior tendon lesions. 13 feet of 12 patients were treated by resection of accessory navicular, the synchondrosis, the medial portion of the navicular and reattachment of tibialis posterior tendon without transposition. 9 feet in 8 patients were followed for more than one year after surgery. In 4 patients with tibialis posterior tendon lesions, additional procedures were performed according to the state of the lesion. Results: All were type II accessory navicular bone which had synchondroses. There was gross motion of the synchondrosis in 'the operating field in all feet. Of the 9 feet which were followed for more than one year after surgery, results were excellent in five and good in four. Conclusion: The painful accessory navicular in adult might be closely associated with inversion ankle sprain, and also with the tibialis posterior tendon lesions. Satisfactory result could be obtained without transposition of the tibialis posterior tendon to the undersurface of the navicular and immediate postoperative weight bearing does not have harmful effect on the result.

        • KCI등재

          The Economy of Desire in "Nausicaa"

          Nam,,Ki-Heon 한국제임스조이스학회 2003 제임스조이스저널 Vol.9 No.2

          제임스 조이스의 『율리시즈』에서 젠더(gender)의 문제는 특히 여성 등장인물에게 집중되어 있는데, 몰리를 제외한 다른 여성들 중에서 「나시카」장의 거티 맥도웰(Gerty MacDowell)이 가장 주목할 만한 인물이다. 하지만 대부분의 비평가들은 블룸과 거티의 성 정치성(sexual politic)의 입장에서 접근하고 있어, 거티의 욕망이 형성되는 사회, 경제적 구조에 대해서 도외시하고 있다. 따라서 본 논고에서는 자본주의시대의 여성의 욕망과 성 정체성의 관계를 살펴보고자 한다. 우선 스타일의 측면에서 전반부의 거티의 내러티브 스타일과 후반부의 블룸의 내러티브의 스타일이 마치 여성성, 성성을 대변하는 것처럼 여기지만, 둘 사이의 성 정치성의 경쟁이라기보다는 각 젠더의 상호작용을 나타내고 있다고 본다. 즉, 여성성도 단순히 남성성의 대치개념으로 이해하기보다는 상호작용 속에서 형성되며, 남성성 또한 독자적인 공간속에 존재하는 개념이 아닌 것이다. 「나시카」장의 주인공 거티 맥도웰은 아일랜드의 카톨릭의 종교이념아래서 성장한 사춘기의 소녀이며, 동시에 영국의 빅토리아 왕조의 통속문화의 산물이기도 하다. 따라서 그녀는 조이스가 그리고 있는 아일랜드의 여성성을 당시의 베스트셀러 소설이었던 마리아 커민스(Maria Cummins)의 『가로등점등원』(The Lamplighter)의 주인공 거티 플린트(Gerty Flint)가 담아 내고 있는 대중문화 속의 여성성도 함께 거티를 통해서 보여주고 있다. 거티는 자신을 상점의 전시대에 진열되어 있는 상품처럼 물화하기도 하며, 사실상 적극적으로 욕망의 경제속에 참여하고 있다. 그러므로 거티가 표현하는 여성성은 단순히 남성의 윽구가 투영된 물화(Fetishization)된 것이 아니라, 블룸의 남성의 응시(the male gaze)에 오히려 적극적인 참여를 통해 남성중심의 욕망의 경제에 중요한 분기점(nodal point)으로 작용하고 있다. 욕망은 궁극적으로 언어 재현의 체계이기 때문에 열린 결말을 가진 기표의 연쇄이다. 따라서 유일한 욕망의 만족은 과정 그 자체인 것이다. 이러한 욕망은 과정 자체가 중요시되는 경제적 틀 안에서 이해되어야 한다. 반면에 블룸의 남성적 응시는 단순히 여성을 물화하는데 그치지 않는다. 왜냐하면 거티와 블룸사이의 욕망의 교환은 상호응시에 의해 가능하며, 이러한 상호응시는 관음증적 주체와 노출증적 객체사이의 만남이다. 하지만 여기에서도 주체와 객체의 구분은 사실 모호하다. 왜냐하면 욕망의 경제는 과정 자체가 중요하기 때문에 상호응시에 의해 이루어진 각자의 욕구충족은 그 자체가 결과이기도 하기 때문이다. 자신을 물화하면서 얻어진 성적 욕구의 실현이나 대상에 대한 응시를 통해 얻어진 만족감은 서로 공유하고 있는 부분이 있으며, 동시에 공유될 수 없는 부분이 존재하기 때문이다. 따라서 이분법적 틀로 남성과 여성의 욕망을 재단하는 일은 무리가 있음을 조이스는 인식하고 있는 것이다. 따라서 거기엔 성 정치성에 의해 규정된 종속이나 상하위 개념은 존재하지 않고, 끊임없는 기표의 생산만이 남게 되는 것이다.

        • KCI등재

          『더블린 사람들』 : 조이스의 식민주의 비판 Joyce`s Critique of Colonialism

          남기헌 한국제임스조이스학회 1999 제임스조이스저널 Vol.5 No.1

          James Joyce has been regarded as an Irish writer who is unfavorable to his own country. Owing to the academic approaches to Joyce as a modernist writer, it has been almost an truism to identify Joyce as an apolitical writer, but he was not much concerned in Irish political and historical situation as any other Irish writer was. He tried to obtain as much information as possible on Irish political situation even during his sojourn in the Continent. Many studies have appeared focusing on Joyce's Ulysses, and they have shed a new light on it. Nevertheless, political approaches to Joyce's Dubliners are still scarce. Joyce once remarked, 'The state is concentric, man is eccentric.' These metaphoric and rhetorical words reveal Joyce's political attitude itself: ex-centric resistance. He never manifested his political ideas even to his close friends, but his writings showed us a glimpse of his political attitudes. Dubliners, even his early work, enunciates Joyce's critique of British colonial domination of Ireland at the turn of the century. This paper will focus on Joyce's critique of colonial domination in some stories of Dubliners. As Joyce himself remarked in Stephen Hero, "in many cases the government of an empire is greatest at its borders and it is invariably greatest there is the case when its power at the center is on the wane" (147). Joyce's Dublin is at the critical point of colonial domination, in which England's imperial domination in other places was dwindling, and in which accordingly its border such as Ireland her colonial domination was increasing. Despite the geographical proximity and political solidarity, Ireland was suffering from the increased colonial domination of the British empire. As Trevor Williams remarks, "paralysis is not God-given; on the contrary, it arises from a specific social and economic formation" (Williams, 54). The orgins and effects of "spiritual paralysis" are rooted in colonial situation, of which Joyce is keenly aware. Joyce seems to have thought of the primal origin of "spiritual paralysis" as the fall of Charles Stewart Parnell, which is well described in "Ivy Day." Joyce describes the post-Parnell era, in which money displaces political ideals as a motivation for enthusiasm.

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