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In this study, we fabricated high-quality ZnO films using hydrothermally grown ZnO nanorods and a spin-coated Al-doped ZnO film by using regrowth method. The phtoluminescence (PL) intensity ratios of the near-band-edge (NBE) to deep-level (DL) emission peaks (INBE/IDL) for ZnO nanorods (samples 1) and ZnO film (sample 2) were 2.13 and 24.3, respectively. The redshift from 3.288 (sample 2) to 3.278 eV (sample 1) and low INBE/IDL ratio in PL spectra were attributed to large mismatch between ZnO and Si substrate, resulting in a residual stress and the low optical properties. In case of sample 2, the photocurrent was sharply increased without the exponential rise because of enhanced optical properties of ZnO film by regrowth. The regrowth method is expected to represent a possible route for fast-response ultraviolet sensors.
착색단고추는 현재 재배면적이 급격히 증가하는 수출유망 작물이다. 전국 15개 재배농가를 대상으로 병해발생 상황을 조사한 결과 바이러스병, 풋마름병, 역병, 뿌리썩음병 등의 순서로 많이 발생하였다. 특히 새로운 병해로 발견된 붉은줄기마름병이 확인되었다. 묘령이 다른 착색단고추에 역병균을 접종하면 성묘에서는 어린묘보다 발병이 지연되었다. 또한, 착색단고추 락울재배시스템에서 역병균의 접종농도별 발생정도를 검토한 결과 10^(6)에서는 접종후 9일에, 10^(4)에서는 11일에 10²에서는 13일에 100% 발병하였다. 착색단고추 역병방제를 목적으로 16개 농약을 대상으로 약효·약해 시험을 한 결과 약해도 없고 방제효과가 좋은 농약은 Etatoxam Wp, Etaboxam + Triflumizole Wp, Dimethomorph + Copper oxychloride Wp 등 3개 약제였다.
This paper presents research trends of recommendation methods for developing personalized recommendation system. we classified research trends of recommendation methods into three main categories(Conten-based, Collaborative , Hybrid recommendation approaches). And we describes characteristics and recommendation techniques of each recommend ation method. Finally, we compared performance of each recommendation method for proposing future research.
The photoluminescence (PT) properties of Al-doped ZnO thin films grown by the sol-gel dip-coating method have been investigated. At 12 K, nine distinct PL peaks were observed at 2.037, 2.592, 2.832, 3.027, 3.177, 3.216, 3.260, 3.303, and 3.354 eV. The deep-level emissions (2.037, 2.592, 2.832, and 3.027 eV) were attributed to native defects. The near-band-edge (NBE) emission peaks at 3.354, 3.303, 3.260, 3.216, and 3.177 eV were attributed to the emission of the neutral-donor-bound excitons (D0X), two-electron satellite (TES), free-to-neutral-acceptors (e,A0), donor-acceptor pairs (DAP), and second-order longitudinal optical (2LO) phonon replicas of the TES (TES-2LO), respectively. According to Haynes’ empirical rule, we calculated the energy of a free exciton (FX) to be 3.374 eV. The thermal activation energy for D0X in the nanocrystalline ZnO thin film was found to be ~25 meV, corresponding to the thermal dissociation energy required for D0X transitions.
Zinc-oxide (ZnO) thin films were grown on R-plane sapphire substrates by using the sol-gel spincoating method. They were annealed at temperatures ranging from 600 to 800 ◦C. The effects of the annealing temperature on the properties of the ZnO thin films were investigated using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and photoluminescence. When the annealing temperature was increased to 700 ◦C, the grains of the ZnO thin films coalesced, their size increased, and the residual stress in the ZnO thin films was relaxed. In addition, the intensity of the deep-level emission peak caused by defects decreased, and the full width at half maximum of the near-bandedge emission peak decreased as the annealing temperature was increased to 700 ◦C. However, when the annealing temperature was increased further, degradation of the structural and the optical properties was observed. The reflective index of the ZnO thin films in the UV region increased as the annealing temperature was increased to 700 ◦C, and n in the visible region decreased with increasing wavelength. The extinction coefficient in the UV and the visible regions decreased as the annealing temperature was increased to 700 ◦C. However, inflection points in the reflective index and the extinction coefficient were observed with a further increase in the annealing temperature.
Sol-gel spin-coating was used to deposit Co-doped ZnO thin films onto quartz glass substrates. A secondary phase could not be detected in the films from their X-ray diffraction patterns, implying that substituting Co<sup>2+</sup> ions into the ZnO matrix did not modify its wurtzite structure. We used an ultraviolet (UV)-visible spectrometer to measure the optical properties of the Co-doped ZnO thin films at room temperature to demonstrate that Co<sup>2+</sup> ions had been substituted for Z1<sup>2+</sup> ions in the wurtzite structure. The UV transmittance spectra for the films showed absorption peaks at 568.1, 609.3, and 660.1 nm. Moreover, the area under the absorption wells between 500 and 700 nm increased with increasing Co concentrations in the films. These results indicate that Co<sup>2+</sup> ions had been substituted for Z1<sup>2+</sup> ions in the crystal lattice of the films.