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Pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) is a multi-system disorder unique to human pregnancy. Although theetiology of PIH is still unknown, there is a large evidence suggesting that abnormal trophoblast invasion is occurring inearly pregnancy and that this may contribute to relative placental hypoxia and oxidative stress that may furtherexacerbate placental pathology. This study was undertaken to determine placental Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD)and Mn SOD activities and evaluate the use of M30 CytoDeath antibody to assess trophoblasts apoptotic activity innormal and PIH pregnancies. We also compared apoptotic rates as detected by M30 and TdT-mediated dUTP nickendlabelling (TUNEL). Placental expression of Cu/Zn SOD and Mn SOD were reduced in PIH as compared to normalpregnancies. M30 immunoreactivity occurred predominantly in the syncytiotrophoblasts, and a significantly highernumber of M30 positive cells in the preeclamptic placentas were found when compared with normal placentas. Thenumber of M30 positive cells correlated with another apoptotic index previously detected by TUNEL method. ─임신성고혈압에서 Caspase-related M30 CytoDeath 발현을이용한 영양막세포고사 연구김호진1, 박혜숙2, 김영주3, 4, 박보현2, 이화영1, 4*이화여자대학교 의과대학 1해부학교실, 2예방의학교실, 3산부인과학교실4이화여자대학교 의과학연구소임신성고혈압은 모체와 주산기의 사망률 및 이환률을 높이는 주요 원인이며 이의 발병에 관한 명확한 병리기전은 밝혀져있지 않으나, 태반형성 시 비정상적인 영양막 침윤으로 인한 나선동맥의 불충분한 생리학적 변화와 이로 인한 태반허혈 및산화손상이 모체의 혈관내피세포 기능변화를 유발하고, 태반의 구조적 변화를 악화시키는 것으로 알려져 있다. 본 연구는 임신성고혈압의 태반내 항산화상태와 영양막의 세포고사를 조사하고자, 정상 임산부와 임신성고혈압 환자의 출산 시 분리된태반을 대상으로 태반 내 Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) 및 Mn SOD의 함량을 측정하였다. 또한 영양막 세포고사 연구를위하여 근래에 개발된 M30 CytoDeath 발현과 기존의 TdT-mediated dUTP nickend labelling (TUNEL)을 병행하여 관찰하고이를 통계적으로 분석, 비교하였다. 태반에 함유된 Cu/ Zn SOD와 Mn SOD 활성은 정상임신에 비하여 임신성고혈압에서 의미있게 감소되었으며, 세포고사를 표지하는 M30발현을 통하여 임신성고혈압의 융합영양막에서 그 반응성과 발현세포의 숫적증가가 관찰되었다.찾아보기 낱말 : 임신성고혈압, 영양막, 산화손상, 세포고사, SOD, M30Ho Jin Kim, Hyesook Park, Young Ju Kim, Bohyun Park, Hwayoung Lee 59
Background: Plasma soluble cluster determinant 36 (sCD36) level is closely related with insulin resistance and atherosclerosis, but little is known whether it could be a surrogate for estimating risk of developing diabetes or not. To address this, we evaluated association between sCD36 index, the product of sCD36 and fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and then compared with triglyceride-glucose (TyG) index which has been suggested simple index for insulin resistance. Methods: This was cross-sectional study, and participants were classified as normal glucose tolerance (NGT), prediabetes, and T2DM according to glucose tolerance. The formula of TyG index was ‘ln [FPG (mg/dL)×triglyceride (mg/dL)/2],' and the sCD36 index was ‘ln [sCD36 (pg/mL)×FPG (mg/dL)/2].'Results: One hundred and fifty-five subjects (mean age, 55.2 years) were enrolled, and patients with T2DM were 75. Both indexes were significantly increased in prediabetes and T2DM rather than NGT, and sCD36 index was positively correlated with both glycosylated hemoglobin and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (r=0.767 and r=0.453, respectively; P<0.05) and negatively with homeostasis model assessment estimate of β-cell function (r=–0.317). The odds ratio (OR) of sCD36 index for T2DM was 4.39 (95% confidential interval, 1.51 to 12.77) after adjusting age, gender, blood pressure, smoking, alcohol, non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. However, OR of TyG index did not remained significance after adjustment. Conclusion: sCD36 index has an independent association with the risk of T2DM, and showed better correlation than TyG index. These results suggest sCD36 index might be useful surrogate marker for the risk of diabetes.
The cellular components of U. unicinctus coelomic fluid are prepared to study seasonal differentiation of the cells and examined on electron microscope. Under various types of cells, coelomic sperm ball(CSB) have been observed. CSBs are composed of a somatic cell and innumerable spermatids along the somatic cell membrane. The somatic cell membranes are enlarged to form membranous structures which are resemble with exocytotic vesicles. In the vesicle, spermatids nucleus, acrosome, proximal and distal centrioles and not yet fully elongated flagellum have been identified. It seems likely that the spermatids are produced from the somatic cell which secretes the vesicular contents through a process exactly resemble with exocytosis of a secretory cell. It was observed that the organelles as well as the germ nucleus are also supplied from the somaic cell of CSB, which mean the unit of male germ cell production is the somatic cell. There are numerous CSBs floating in the coelomic fluid of U. unicinctus, and it was a conclusion in this work that U. unicinctus performs a diffuse spermatogenesis. The observed origin of male germ cell in U. unicinctus can be compared with the theories on the origin of germ cells, somatic cell origin vs germ plasm origin. In U. unicinctus, spermatic are arises from the somatic cell. The somatic cell engaged itself to produce many male germ cells, and can not be differentiated itself into a male germ cell. Thus, on the origin of germ cell, the conceptual and structural differences between the previous theory of somatic origin of germ cell and CSBs are reported and discussed in consideration of origin of male germ cells in U. unicinctus. Key words: Germ cell, Somatic origin, Sperm ball, Exocytosis, Diffuse spermatogenesis
Peoples live the most of the day in an indoor. Therefore, the various technical system is used in order to be agreeable more and efficiently maintain the inner climate. Diffuser is played the important role among the air conditioner and it has enough to note as to a selection. Recently, the predictive assessment of the indoor thermal environment in which we use CFD and air environment is actively made. And the result of being performed by carefully considering the air specific of a diffuser is rare. Therefore, in this, each type of the diffuser for indoor air specific was carefully analyzed. It expects to be used as the boundary condition of a diffuser, when the predictive assessment of the indoors thermal environment and air environment is made by using CFD.