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        • KCI등재

          곤충병원성 선충(Steinernematid와 Heterorhabditid)을 이용한 시설재배지 배추좀나방(Plutella xylostella)의 생물적 방제

          김형환,조성래,이동운,전흥용,박정규,추호렬 한국응용곤충학회 2006 한국응용곤충학회지 Vol.45 No.2

          Five strains of Korean entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN), steinernematids and heter-orhabditids were evaluated and tried in laboratory, pot, and vegetable greenhouses for environmentally friendly control of diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella, from 2002 to 2005. LC50 values of five EPN strains against DBM were different depending on nematode strain and DBM instar. LC50 value of Steinernema carpocapsae GSN1 (GSN1) was the lowest representing 2.6~3.9 infective juveniles (Ijs, 3rd stage) to 2nd to 4th instars of DBM. Pathogenicity of five effective strains against DBM was different depending on nematode strain, concentration, application times, and vegetable in pot. The most effective nematode was GSN1. Steinernema spp. was more effective than Heterorhabditis spp. against DBM. Two or three times of applications of EPN were effective regardless of nematode strain and concentration in pot. Efficacy of EPN was different depending on vegetable species. Efficacy was higher on Chinese cabbage, red mustard, and Ssamchoo than that on cabbage, kale, and leaf broccoli. Efficacy of GSN1, Steinernema GSNUS-10, Steinernema GSNUS-14, and Heterorhabditis GSNUH-l was variable depending on nematode strain, concentration, application times, and vegetable in greenhouse experiments. GSN1 was the most effective and 100,000 infective juveniles per ㎡ (=1 x 10^9 Ijs/ha) resulted in higher efficacy. Three times of application of nematodes led to higher control efficacy than one or two applications. Efficacy of nematodes was higher on Chinese cabbage than cabbage or kale in greenhouse.

        • KCI등재

          Bromobenzene으로 유발된 흰쥐의 간손상(肝損傷)에서 가미오령산이 항산화(抗酸化) 작용(作用)에 미치는 영향

          김형환,김미랑,박철수,김종대,Kim, Hyeong-Hwan,Kim, Mi-Rang,Park, Chul-Soo,Kim, Jong-Dae 대한한방내과학회 2000 大韓韓方內科學會誌 Vol.21 No.3

          Objective : This is the experimental paper to investigate the effects of Gami-oryungsan(GO) on decreasing the activities of free radicals. Methods : We used three different group; In the normal group, we injected Gami-oryungsan extract intraperitoneally daily for 15days(90mg/kg), bromobenzene(310mg/kg) for 2days and injected normal saline in the control group. Results : We have observed the effects of Gami-oryungsan about the damage of rat's liver induced by bromobenzene. We can find the level of lipid peroxidation and type conversion ratio of xanthine oxidase decreased compared to the case of bromobenzene-treated group. The enzyme of activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase highly increased in Gami-oryungsan pre-acupunctured group compared to the group treated with only bromobenzene. The level of glutathione in Gami-oryungsan pre-acupunctured group was increased as highly as normal group. Also it was not seen special effects concerning aldehyde oxidase. Conclusions : Gami-oryungsan extract recovers the damage of liver due to bromobenzene intoxication by decreasing the lipid peroxidation.

        • KCI등재

          곤충병원성 선충이 당근뿌리혹선충의 난낭 형성에 미치는 영향

          김형환,추호렬,조명래,전흥용,임명순,하판정 한국응용곤충학회 2002 한국응용곤충학회지 Vol.41 No.3

          곤충병원성 선충인 Steinernema carpocapsae All (ScA)과 포천(ScP) 계통, S.glaseri NC (SgN)와 동래(SgD) 계통, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora NC 1 계통(HbN)이 당근뿌리혹선충 (Meloidogyne hapla)의 난낭 형성에 미치는 영향을 구명하기 위하여 토마토를 이용한 pot실험을 수행한 결과는 다음과 같다. 450마리의 당근뿌리혹선충이 있는 100g 토양에 곤충병원성 선충을 2.5 마리 농도로 처리한 결과 ScA처리에서 9.4-36.5개, SgN처리에서 5.7-24.7개, HbN처리에서 11.2-16.0개로서 당근뿌리혹선충 단독 처리에서의 62.5개보다 난낭수가 매우 적었다. Steinernema선충을 100㎤당 100마리, 200마리의 당근뿌리혹선충에 대해 2,020마리/토양 350g와 1.6 마리 농도로 처리한 결과 Steinernema 선충의 종간, 계통별 또는 처리농도 간에는 난낭수의 차이가 없었으나, 당근뿌리혹선충 단독 처리와 비교하면 난낭수가 현저히 감소하였다 곤충병원성 선충을 당근뿌리혹선충 처리 3일 전에 처리한 것이 3일 후에 처리한 것보다 난낭 형성 억제에 더 효과적이었다. 한편, 곤충병원성 선충은 토마토의 생육에 아무런 영향을 끼치지 않았다. The entomopathogenic nematodes, Steinernema carpocapsae All strain (ScA), S.glaseri NC strain (SgN) and H. bacteriophora NC 1 strain (HbN), were evaluated for the effects on egg mass formation by the northern root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne hapla in pot experiment using tomato. In the first experiment, 2.510 infective juveniles (Ijs) of entomopathogenic nematodes were inoculated to 100 g of the soil infected with ca. 450 Ijs of M. hapla/100 ㎤ in 150 container. The number of egg mass was significantly decreased to 9.4-36.5 in ScA, to 5.7-24.7 in SgN and to 11.2-16.0 in HbN treatments compared with 62.5 in M.hapla alone. In the second experiment, ScA and S.carpocapsae Pocheon strain (ScP) and SgN and S.glaseri Dongrae strain (SgD) were treated to 350 g of the soil infected with 100, 200 M.hapla larvae/100 ㎤ in 450 container The entomopathogenic nematodes were inoculated at the rate of 2,020 Ijs and 1.6105 Ijs in 350 g soil. The number of egg mass of M.hapla were significantly decreased in the entomopathogenic nematode treatments compared with M.hapla alone although no differences were observed among Steinernema species, strains, or infection concentrations. Treatments of entomopathogenic nematodes 3 days before M.hapla inoculation were more effective on reduction of egg mass formation than those of 3 days after M.hapla treatments. Growth of tomato was not affected by entomopathogenic nematode treatments.

        • 포식성 천적 아큐레이퍼응애를 이용한 민달팽이류의 생물적 방제

          김형환,김동환,양창열,강택준,전성욱,송진선 한국버섯학회 2014 버섯 Vol.18 No.2

          원목 및 톱밥배지 표고버섯 재배지에서 발생하여 피해를 주는 달팽이류에는 산민달팽이와 민 달팽이 2종이 대표적이다. 산민달팽이는 주로 야산을 끼고 재배되는 원목 표고버섯 재배지에 발 생하여 피해를 주며, 민달팽이는 주로 평지에서 재배되고 있는 톱밥배지 표고버섯 재배지에서 피해를 주고 있었다. 산민달팽이와 민달팽이는 표고버섯 재배지에서 5월~10월에 발생하여 피해 를 주었다. 피해는 자실체와 갓을 갉아먹어 상품성을 저하시켜 경제적으로 큰 피해를 유발하였 다. 피해율은 원목표고버섯에서 15~25%, 톱밥배지 표고버섯에서 30~75%였다. 본 시험에서는 포 식성 천적인 아큐레이퍼응애를 이용한 민달팽이류의 방제효과를 알아보기 위하여 수행되었다. 시험은 5월~10월 사이에 천안의 원목표고, 부여와 화성의 톱밥배지 표고버섯 재배지에서 수행되 었으며, 아큐레이퍼응애의 방사밀도와 방사회수에 따른 방제효과를 조사하였다. 아큐레이퍼응애 를 330㎡ 당 5,000마리, 10,000마리, 20,000마리 밀도로 방사한 후 60일 이후에 방제효과는 각각 50%, 75%, 85%로 방사밀도가 많을수록 효과는 높았다. 그리고 2주~한 달 간격으로 1회~7회 방 사하였을 때 방제효과는 4회 이상 방사하였을 때 80% 이상의 높은 효과를 나타내었다. 따라서 표고버섯 재배지에서 산민달팽이와 민달팽이의 생물적 방제를 위해서는 아큐레이퍼응애를 330 ㎡ 당 10,000마리 이상의 밀도로 연중 4회 이상 방사할 경우 80% 이상의 높은 방제효과와 함께 버섯의 피해율도 5% 이내로 줄이는 효과가 있었다. 이러한 방제효과는 2년째, 3년째 등 시간이 지남에 따라 보다 더 높은 효과가 있었다.

        • KCI등재

          느타리버섯 재배사에서 한국산 Steinernema와 Heterorhabditis를 이용한 버석혹파리(Mycophila speyeri)의 생물적 방제

          김형환,추호렬,이동우,이흥수,전흥용,하판정 한국응용곤충학회 2004 한국응용곤충학회지 Vol.43 No.3

          느타리버섯 재배사에서 버섯혹파리(Mycophila speyeri)에 대한 한국산 곤충병원성 선충 Steinernema carpocapsae 포천 계통, S. logicaudum 논산 계통, S. glaseri 동래 계통, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora 함양 계통과 Heterorabditis sp. 경산 계통의 방제효과를 평가하였다. 5종의 한국산곤충병원성 선충 중 버섯혹파리에 대한 방제는 steinernema 속 3종보다 Heterorhabditis 속 2종의 효과가 높았다. 방제효과가 가장 높았던 종은 H. bacteriophora 함양 계통이었으며, 당 마리로 처리한 7일, 14일, 21일째 방제효과는 창녕에서 였고, 마리로 처리했을 때는 였다. 그리고 진주에서는 마리로 처리한 7일, 14일, 21일째 방제효과가 였으며, 마리로 처리했을 때는 였다. The potential of five entomopathogenic nematodes, Steinernema carpocapsae Pocheon strain, S. logicaudum Nonsan strain, S. glaseri Dongrae strain, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Hamnyang strain, and Heterorabditis sp. Gyeongsan strain were evaluated as biological control agents against a mushroom fly, Mycophila speyeri in the mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus cultivation house. Control effect of M. speyeri was significantly different according to nematode species. Heterorhabditis was more effective than Steinernema. H. bacteriophora Hamnyang strain showed the highest control effect representing (7 days), (14 days) and (21 days post-treatment) at the rate of and (7 days), (14 days) and (21 days post-treatment) at the rate of Ijs/ in Changnyoung, Gyeongnam, respectively. In Jinju, Gyeongnam, control effects of the sa me species were (7 days), (14 days), and (21 days post-treatment) at the rate of and (7 days), (14 days), and (21 days post-treatment) at the rate of Ijs/, respectively.

        • KCI등재

          한국산 곤충병원성 선충에 대한 알팔파바구미의 감수성 실내 검정

          김형환,한건영,박정찬,추호렬,조성래,이흥수,이동운,박정규 한국응용곤충학회 2007 한국응용곤충학회지 Vol.46 No.1

          Laboratory tests were conducted to determine the susceptibility of the alfalfa weevil, Hypera postica to Korean entomopathogenic nematodes, Steinernema carpocapsae GSN1 strain (ScG), S. glaseri Dongrae strain (SgD), Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Hamyang strain (HbH), and Heterorhabditis sp. Gyeongsan strain (HeG) at the petri dish assay. The larval mortality of H. postica was significantly different depending on nematode species and treatment concentration. SgD and HeG strain were more effective against H. postica larva than ScG and HbH strain. When SgD and HeG strain were treated with the rate of >20 infective juveniles (ijs) per alfalfa weevil larva, mortality was ca. 77.5-100% at the late instars of H. postica in 3 days. The number of established nematode was significantly different depending on nematode species, whereas number of progeny was not significantly different. The mean number of established ijs of SgD strain in a host was the highest at 80 ijs by 30.2. The highest progeny number of HeG strain was 2,671.5 with 80 ijs. All nematode strains were not parasitic entirely to H. postica adults. These results show that alfalfa weevil late larva is highly susceptible to Korean entomopathogenic nematodes in the laboratory.

        • KCI등재

          우엉뭉뚝날개나방(Tebenna issikii)에 대한 Steinernema carpocapsae GSN1 계통의 병원성

          김형환,한건영,추호렬,이상명,이동운 한국응용곤충학회 2007 한국응용곤충학회지 Vol.46 No.2

          Entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema carpocapsae GSN1 strain was evaluated for the environmentally sound control of Tebenna issikii (Lepidoptera: Choreutidae) in the laboratory. The corrected mortality of Tebenna issikii larvae was 100% at the 40 infective juveniles (Ijs)/larva 3 days after treatment with S. carpocapsae GSN1 strain in Petri dish. LC50 value of S. carpocapsae GSN1 strain against Tebenna issikii was 5.7 Ijs. The mean penetration numbers of Ijs of S. carpocapsae GSN1 strain at the 5, 10, 20, 40 and 80 Ijs/larva in a Tebenna issikii larva were 1.4, 1.4, 3.2, 5.6 and 11.9 Ijs/larva, respectively. However penetration rate of Ijs of S. carpocapsae GSN1 strain at 5 Ijs/larva was the highest among other nematode concentrations. Progeny of S. carpocapsae GSN1 strain in a Tebenna issikii larva was higher with increasing nematode concentration.

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