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Real-scenery landscape paintings (silgyeong sansuhwa, 實景山水畵) in the nineteenth century were produced in various forms such as albums, scrolls or folding screens, since patronage for the real-scenery landscape paintings by gyeonghwasejok had expanded due to travel for exploring natural beauties and their interest in collecting paintings and calligraphies. Gyeonghwasejok refers to aristocrats (yangban) living in the nation's capital whose families' social and economic status were guaranteed by monopolization of their government official posts. Gyeonghwasejok was a patron to painters, as well as a collector with the power of controlling the art market. Gyeonghwasejok, who dominated the painting circles in the nineteenth century, chose jabidaeryeong hwawon (painters-in-waiting) who were regarded as the best painters in their time after Kim Hong-do or local literati painters for their commissions. Gyeonghwasejok patronized real-scenery landscape paintings in the political situation of Noron (Old Doctrine)'s in-law government in the nineteenth century because of fascination over traveling for exploring the beauty of nature and their interest in collecting paintings and calligraphies, expression of consciousness of lineage and channels for political exchange, and the increased trend of treasuring Kim Hong-do's Haesan-cheop. Gyeonghwasejok was active in producing real-scenery landscape paintings, as they were infatuated with traveling and collecting, while reading travel poems and travel diaries of their predecessors or treasuring inherited objects related to traveling for exploring the beauties. Further, Gyeonghwasejok reproduced gajeon hwacheop (painting albums preserved in one's family) or gajeon hwabyeong (folding screens preserved in one's family) that revealed their consciousness of lineage, or produced travel albums of paintings to get forewords or inscriptions from high-ranking officials, so they strived to secure their political positions. This is evidenced by Gosangugok sihwabyeong commissioned in 1803 by Andong Kim's clan, a representative Noron's family in power, and by the fact that they commissioned a painter to remake a copy of Gokwun gugok docheop in 1804. With the increased trend of treasuring Kim Hong-do's Haesan-choep, gyeonghwasejok accompanied jabidaeryeong hwawon their journeys to produce travel albums of paintings or commissioned painters to reproduce travel albums of paintings in Kim Hong-do's style. Real-scenery landscape paintings in the nineteenth century were patronized by two political powers; Noron's gyeonghwasejok, who has substantial political power, and Soron(Young Doctrine)'s gyeonghwasejok, who cooperated with a family in power. Noron's gyeonghwasejok who settled around the capital had the power not only in political circles but in art circles as well. Noron Yi Gwang-mun (1778-1838)'s Haesan docheop is a travel album of paintings executed by Kim Ha-jong (1793-1878) for his patron Yi Gwang-mun in his distinctive manner, which did not follow Kim Hong-do's Haesan-choep, but rather reflected Yi's idea of depicting actuality. This paper confirms that Kim ha-jong, who died in 1878, had a pen name of“Sungyanggeosa,”or was called “Yeonungongyang,”and it is presumed that Kim Jeong-hee (1786-1856), who had associated with Yi Gwang-mun, left an inscription on the cover of the album. Moreover, in the nineteenth century it was very competitive to be nominated by dodanghoegwon, so Jeong Won-yong, Yi Pung-ik, Yi Yu-won of Soron could not be appointed to high-ranking official posts without the support of Noron's family in power. Haoedo sipgokbyeong patronized by Soron Jeong Won-yong (1783-1873) in 1828 was the gajeon hwabyeong commissioned to Yi Ui-seong, aimed to elevate the Jeong clan's prestige, which is a reproduction of Haoesanghanakgang ildaedo, which included the poems of his ancestor Jeong Yu-gil and of the hometown of the Jeong clan. Jeong Wonyong published Dongseong gyoyeojip which compiled the
Design thinking involves divergent and convergent thinking towards a satisficing solution with issues such as rationalization, creativity and how it functions during the process with design activities. The goal of this research is to understand design activities and cognitive processes during design phases through comparative analysis of novice and expert visual communication designers under theoretical framework. Research method for the study consists of three stages; 1) literature review, 2) experiment, and 3) analysis. After reviewing design thinking, visual communication design, and design activities and cognitive processes in design phases, a visual communication design task is performed by novice and expert designers in an experimental setting. Collected data includes concurrent self-reporting, writings, sketches, computer iterations, retrospective interview and researcher`s observational notes. Data assembled in one-minute time frames were examined by two coders for verbal and visual analyses. For the design process, all expert designers went through the phases of problem structuring, concept generation, concept visualization, design refinement, and detailing whereas two of the novice designers jumped into visualization followed by refinement and detailing. Experts worked on detailed design in between phases instead of at the end which indicates the ability to segment and conquer design task according to confronted circumstances. In reflection to design activities, novice designers produced significantly larger number of sketches compared to expert designers. Expert designers produced small number of sketches but they made substantial progress during the process. Novice designers used graphic software as a confirmatory tool whereas expert designers started working with computer from preliminary design phase for exploratory purposes. As for cognitive processes, expert designers exhibited more divergent thinking compared to novice designers. Expert designers went through divergent to convergent thinking for concept generation, and repeated the process one more time during visualization until meeting a satisficing design solution. Novices who overlooked concept generation went through divergent to convergent thinking during sketching and visualization using computer. The goal of this study was to investigate the thinking processes of visual communication designers during the entire design phases through comparative analysis of novice and expert designers. This study contributes to the comprehensive exploration of the design phases as most of the prior researches concentrated on the conceptual stage of design process. This sets example for examining design disciplines according to the design objectives, functions, artifacts, and how designers operate while designing. For the future research, specific issues found from the study need to be further investigated with larger number of participants for finding patterns of visual communication designers` thinking processes.
본 연구에서는 외집단 매체에 대한 적대적 매체 지각이 정치적 정체성이 현저할 경우 강화되는지를 검증하고 적대적 매체 지각이 행동의향으로 이어지는 과정에서 정서와 이슈 관여도의 역할을 탐색했다. 대학생을 대상으로 온라인 서베이 실험을 실시한 결과, 정치적 정체성이 현저한 실험집단에서만 외집단 매체의 사설에 대해 내집단 매체의 사설보다 적대적 매체 지각이 더 높게 나타났다. 또한 적대적 매체 지각과 행동의향 간 관계에서 분노의 매개 효과는 저관여 집단에서 통계적으로 유의한 수준으로 나타났고 불안감의 매개 효과는 고관여 집단에서 통계적으로 유의한 수준에 근접했다. 이와 같은 결과는 적대적 매체 지각이 행동적 효과로 연결되는 메커니즘이 이슈 관여도에 따라 다를 수 있음을 시사한다. 연구 결과의 함의와 연구의 한계점에 대한 논의를 포함한다. This study examined the relationship between political identity salience and hostile media perception and the roles of emotions and issue involvement in the process of hostile media effect in which hostile media perception is linked to behavioral intention. Results of an online survey among college students demonstrate that the hostile media perception on a message from the out-group media was greater than the hostile media perception on a message from the in-group media only when participants were primed with political identity. The mediation effect of anger between hostile media perception and behavioral intention was statistically significant only in the low involvement group while the mediation effect of anxiety between hostile media perception and behavioral intention almost reached statistical significance only in high involvement group. Implications of the findings and limitations of the study are discussed.
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이 연구의 목적은 PISA 2015 과학 영역에서 나타난 우리나라 학생들의 성취 특징을 분석하는 것이다. 이를 위하여 PISA 상위 성취국과의 비교 및 문항별 분석을 바탕으로 최근에 나타난 우리나라 학생들의 과학 영역 성취 하락의 원인을 찾고자 하 였으며, 우리나라 학생들이 부족한 과학 소양을 분석하여 향후 우리나라 과학 교육에의 시사점을 도출하고자 하였다. 이를 위해 우리나라 외에 PISA 2015 성취도 상위 5개국을 선정하고, 분석 대상국 학생들의 과학 영역 문항 채점 결과를 분석하였다. 6 개국의 과학 영역 평균 점수, 백분위 점수, 성취수준별 비율 등을 비교하였으며, 문항별 정답률을 분석하여 우리나라 학생들이 다른 상위국과 비교하여 상대적으로 부족한 소양을 찾고자 하였다. 이 연구의 분석 결과는 다음과 같다. 첫째, PISA 2015에 서 나타난 과학 성취의 하락은 남학생 하집단의 성취 점수 하락 및 비율 증가와 관련된 것으로 판단되었다. 둘째, 우리나라 학생들의 정답률이 낮은 문항은 정답이 한개로 규정되지 않거나 과학적으로 선택의 이유를 설명하도록 하는 유형의 문항이었 다. 셋째, 과학 평가틀의 관점에서 살펴보면, 우리나라는 ‘역량'의 하위 범주 중 ‘과학탐구의 설계 및 평가', ‘지식'의 하위 범주 중에서는 ‘인식론적' 지식의 정답률이 낮게 나타났다. The purpose of this study is to analyze achievement characteristics of Korean students in the results of PISA 2015 science domain. To this purpose, based on the comparison of high-performing countries in PISA and the item analyses, this study aimed to find the reasons why the performance of Korean students has declined, as well as to draw implication for the future Korean education by finding out scientific literacies in which Korean students did not perform well. In addition to Korea, other 5 high-performing countries were selected and the results of science items for those six countries were analyzed. With respect to science, the mean scores, item means, percentile scores, percentages of each performance level across six countries were analyzed and the relatively insufficient competencies for Korean students were identified. The results of this study are as follows. First, the decline in Korean students' science achievement in PISA 2015 was associated with the low-performing Korean male students. That is, the mean scores of the low-performing male students declined and also the percentage of the low-performing Korean male students increased. Second, the items in which Korean students did not perform well have one of the following two traits. The first trait is that they ask students to choose more than one correct answer and the second trait is that they ask students to write the reasons of their selection. With respect to the science assessment framework, the low item means for Korean students were found in the items asking Evaluate and Design Scientific Enquiry among the different categories of Competencies as well as Epistemic Knowledge among the different categories in Knowledge.
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빠른 속도로 변화하는 시대에 부응하는 교수법의 필요성이 대두되면서 언어와 내용을 동시에 학습하는 내용언어통합학습 (content and language integrated learning)이 유럽에서 시작 되었으며, 최근 아시아에서도 많은 관심을 가지게 되었다. 즉 지식전달을 목표로 하는 교육에서 지식창조를 위한 교육으로 패러다임의 변화가 필요하였기 때문에 교사들은 언어 학습자에게 교육적 효과와 이익을 가져다주는 CLIL에 주목하게 된 것이다. 그러므로 본 연구의 목적은 유럽과 아시아 나라들에서의 CLIL 적용사례들을 제시하고 EFL 상황에 있는 아동들을 위한 CLIL 지도모형을 제안하는 것이다. 연구 결과는 유럽과 아시아 EFL나라들이 CLIL를 다양한 학교수업에 적용하여 성공적인 결과를 가져 왔음을 확인 하였고, 우리나라 아동들을 위한 CLIL 적용방안으로써 4Cs framework에 기반 한 CLIL 지도모형을 제안한다. As the world is changing in an accelerating speed, the content and language integrated learning (CLIL) approach, a dual-focused educational approach for better access in both languages and content learning, appeared in Europe and even in Asia in recent times. Because we are in a crucial time of having a education paradigm shifting from knowledge transmission to knowledge creation, much attention has to be devoted to CLIL to help language teachers better understand the pedagogical effects and benefits on language learners. To this end, the aims of this study are to present the CLIL implementation cases in Europe and Asia, and to suggest a possible CLIL instruction model for young Korean EFL learners. Pedagogical implications are discussed for implementing CLIL in Korean context. The findings indicate that those EFL countries in Europe and Asia are increasingly interested in implementing CLIL and their results have shown to be successful. Therefore, this study presents the possibilities of implementing CLIL in Korean EFL context and suggests a CLIL instruction model based on 4Cs framewotk for young Korean EFL learners.
Purpose: This study was conducted to provide an effective nursing intervention using an individualized educational program composed with knowledge, compliance, and physiologic parameters for long-term hemodialysis patients. Methods: A quasi-experimental study using a non-equivalent control group and pre- and post-test design was conducted with 40 hemodialysis patients at G university hospital in the J city from June to August, 2015. A data was analyzed using frequency, percentage, x<SUP>2</SUP> test, Shapiro-Wilk test, independent-samples t-test and repeated measures ANOVA using SPSS 21.0 program. Results: knowledge about hemodialysis and patient role behaviors were not significantly different between the two measures. In the biological index, there was significant difference between the groups by points in time and group in blood potassium, albumin, and Kt/v. However, there was no difference in gaining weight between hemodialysis, hemoglobin, and blood phosphorus. Conclusion: The individual training program in this study had an effect on changing some physiological indicators of long-term hemodialysis patients. Future research is warranted for developing various kinds of education program incorporating the findings of the study for the given population.