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Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the important factors on juvenile delinquency and to examine relationships between sex, age, the family environment, the personality of adolescents, smoking, and juvenile delinquency. Methods: Data collection was done through questionnaire surveys. The subjects for this study consisted of 1,948 adolescents delinquents : 784, students : 1,164 in Korea, using proportional stratified random sampling method. Statistical methods employed were chi-square, t-test and path analysis. Results: The results of this study were as follows : 1. The delinquent adolescents were reared in a more dysfunctional family environment, and had a higher maladaptive personality than the other student adolescents. 2. The delinquent adolescents showed the larger amount of smoking than the student adolescents. The cause of increased smoking tendency among delinquents simply were 'for social relation', 'for diversion', 'for nicotine addiction', whereas 'for tension relieving' among non-delinquent adolescents. 3. The most powerful contributors on delinquent behavior were antisocial personality tendencies, smoking, sex, strength of parent- child relationships, and the age of the adolescents in this order. Conclusions: Our cross-sectional findings indicate that smoking was one of the most powerful contributing variables to delinquent behavior, but family environment, personality, sex and age of adolescents were also proved to be strong exogenous variables to smoking in adolescents.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare functional status and the level of health care needs in elderly Koreans in health care institutions. Methods: Data were collected from 2,521 elderly patients admitted in 50 health care institutions (hospitals, oriental hospitals, geriatric hospitals, and health care facilities) selected through proportional stratified sampling in 2008. We used a long-term care (LTC) assessment tool developed by the government, which consists of 52 items with 5 subscales. Results: Statistically significant differences were detected in functional status and the level of health care needs among the subjects in different health care institutions. Of the sample population in geriatric hospitals, 48.9% were eligible for LTC Category 1, 20.9% for Category 2, and 17.2% for Category 3, and 13.1% of the subjects were not eligible for any of the categories. Of the sample population in health care facilities, 29.9% were eligible for LTC Category 1, 20.5% for Category 2, and 21.8% for Category 3, and 27.0% of the subjects were not eligible for any of the categories. Conclusion: The findings of this study indicate the necessity of the development of an evaluation system that helps determine whether a subject is eligible for LTC.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify the prevalence of cognitive impairment, behavioral problems, and the state of mental health for elderly Korean people who have been institutionalized. Methods: A cross-sectional, nationwide survey was performed using an anonymous questionnaire. The participants in this study were 2,521 institutionalized elderly Korean people. A proportional stratified random sampling method was employed. Results: 1) Elders admitted to subacute hospitals and long term care (LTC) facilities showed a higher level of cognitive impairment compared to elders admitted to acute care hospitals. 2) Elders confined in LTC facilities showed a higher level of behavioral problems compared to elders in acute or subacute hospitals. 3) Elders admitted to subacute hospitals and LTC facilities showed more serious mental health problems, such as depression or suicidal ideation, compared to elders in acute care hospitals. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that the severity of cognitive-behavioral or mental health problems do not match well with type of care setting. Therefore, health personnel working with elderly people should be provided guidance on detection and management of cognitive-behavioral and mental health problems. The necessity of a decision support system for eligibility and placement in long-term care is also discussed.