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      • KCI등재

        Measurement of Neutron Capture Cross-Sections and Capture ggamma-ray Spectra of {161,162,163,164}^Dy at 550 keV

        김현덕,김귀년,Jung Keun Ahn,Masayuki Igashira,Satoshi Mizuno,Tae-Ik Ro,Toshiro Ohsaki,Won-Chung Chung 한국물리학회 2004 THE JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN PHYSICAL SOCIETY Vol.45 No.3

        The neutron capture cross-sections and capture-ray spectra of 161;162;163;164Dy were measuredat a neutron energy of 550 keV by using the 3-MV Pelletron accelerator of the Research Laboratoryfor Nuclear Reactors at the Tokyo Institute of Technology. A neutron time-of-ight method wasadopted with a 1.5-ns pulsed neutron source using the 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction, and a large anti-Compton NaI(Tl)-ray spectrometer was used. A pulse-height weighting technique was applied tothe observed capture-ray pulse-height spectra to derive the capture yields. The measured capturecross-sections were 0.221 0.016, 0.110 0.007, 0.119 0.008, and 0.037 0.005 (barn) for 161Dy,162Dy, 163Dy, and 164Dy, respectively. The present results were in good agreement with previousmeasurements. However, the evaluated values of ENDF/B-VI for 162;164Dy were more than threetimes higher than our measurements. The capture-ray spectra were obtained by unfolding theobserved capture-ray pulse-height spectra. The neutron capture cross-sections and capture -ray spectra of 161;162;163;164Dy were measured at a neutron energy of 550 keV by using the 3-MV Pelletron accelerator of the Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors at the Tokyo Institute of Technology. A neutron time-of- ight method was adopted with a 1.5-ns pulsed neutron source using the 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction, and a large anti- Compton NaI(Tl) -ray spectrometer was used. A pulse-height weighting technique was applied to the observed capture -ray pulse-height spectra to derive the capture yields. The measured capture cross-sections were 0.221 0.016, 0.110 0.007, 0.119 0.008, and 0.037 0.005 (barn) for 161Dy, 162Dy, 163Dy, and 164Dy, respectively. The present results were in good agreement with previous measurements. However, the evaluated values of ENDF/B-VI for 162;164Dy were more than three times higher than our measurements. The capture -ray spectra were obtained by unfolding the observed capture -ray pulse-height spectra.

      • KCI등재

        DESD 이후 ESD(Education for Sustainable Development) 교사교육 프로그램의 개발 방향에 관한 연구 - 실태조사를 중심으로 -

        김현덕,한대동 한국국제이해교육학회 2016 국제이해교육연구 Vol.11 No.2

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 9시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        In order to present the future direction of ESD teacher education program after UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development, the researchers reviewed the related literature and surveyed graduate students attending the school of teacher education at a university in Busan. The researchers measured knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of the respondents concerning (E)SD, analyzed the ESD in teacher education program, and the present condition of ESD and it's need at schools. The results of the survey analysis revealed that the respondents had lower level of understanding in the areas economic or social SD, being compared with that of environmental SD, though they understand SD as the holistic concept of environment, economic development, and social justice. The respondents also showed lower mean score in the domain of (E)SD behaviors than in the domain of (E)SD attitudes. They received low level of ESD when they were undergraduate students, and that there were significant age differences in the level of undergraduate ESD as well as in their present level of understanding in ESD. That is, the respondents in their twenties showed the lowest score in (E)SD attitudes and behaviors, especially strikingly lower than the age group of forties, and also those respondents received ESD the least during their undergraduate period. When the respondents teach ESD to young children at schools, their ESD instruction is mostly focused on the environmental aspect of ESD. Most respondents strongly feel the necessity of ESD in all three aspects. The respondents also mentioned a weak instructional environment for ESD and the vagueness and broadness of ESD concept as major obstacles to ESD instruction. They recommended the activity-centered ESD instruction across the whole curriculum for the effective ESD. Based on the literature review and the analysis of the survey questionnaires, the following recommendations are made for the future direction of ESD teacher education program: First, the holistic instruction integrating three pillars of ESD, environment, social justice, and economic development, is recommended. Especially, it is emphasized that the holistic ESD instruction is strongly related to global citizenship education; Second, it is recommended the reinforcement of ESD at pre-and in-service teacher education program, especially for the beginning teachers; Finally, the theme of sustainability in each subject area needs to be taught in connection with the broad concept of ESD, and the participatory instruction for ESD is recommended at schools. 본 연구는 2014년 DESD (Decade of ESD)가 종료된 이후 ESD 교사교육의 방향을 모색하기 위해 수행되었다. 이를 위해 관련 선행연구 분석과 함께 교육대학원생들을 대상으로 ESD 이해도 및 ESD 교사교육 현황, 그리고 학교에서의 ESD 현황 및 요구도를 조사․분석하였다. 분석결과 응답자들은 지속가능발전이 환경, 경제, 사회영역을 포함하는 통합적인 개념임을 이해하고 있는 것으로 나타났다. 그렇지만 세부영역 별로는 환경영역에 대한 이해도가 높은 반면 경제 및 사회발전 영역에 대한 이해도는 낮은 것으로 나타났다. 지속가능발전에 대한 태도와 실천의 측면에서도 태도는 높게 나타난 반면 실천적 측면은 상대적으로 낮게 나타났다. 또한 응답자들이 대학재학 시절 받은 ESD와 관련된 수업의 비중은 적은 것으로 나타났으며, 특히 20대의 응답자가 40대보다 ESD 수업을 적게 받은 것으로 나타났다. ESD 이해도 측면에서도 20대의 응답자는 40대보다 현저하게 낮은 것으로 나타났다. 한편 학교현장에서 ESD 관련 수업을 어느 정도 시행하고 있는지를 살펴본 결과 환경과 관련된 주제를 가장 많이 다루고 있는 것으로 나타났으며, 응답자 모두 ESD 3가지 영역에 걸친 교육의 필요성을 강하게 인식하고 있었다. ESD 수업의 장애요인으로는 ESD 개념의 모호성과 광범위성 외에도 수업환경적인 제약을 지적하였으며, 모든 교과목에서의 활동중심 수업이 가장 바람직하다고 생각하였다. 이와 같은 분석결과를 토대로 향후 ESD 교사교육의 방향은 첫째, 지속가능성의 세 기둥인 환경, 사회적 정의, 경제발전을 균형적으로 통합하여 가르치는 것이 제안되었다. 특히 이러한 통합적 접근방법은 최근 강조되고 있는 세계시민교육과 매우 밀접한 관련이 있음이 강조되었다. 둘째로는 예비교사교육과 현직교사교육 프로그램에서의 ESD 강화, 특히 초임교사 및 경력이 적은 교사를 대상으로 한 다양한 연수 프로그램의 개발과 시행 등이 제언되었다. 마지막으로 학교현장의 ESD 교육에 있어서는 교육과정 속에 포함되어 있는 지속가능성 요소를 ESD와 연계하여 교육하며 실천중심 교육과정이 운영될 필요성이 있음을 제안하였다.

      • KCI우수등재

        산스크리트 복합어(samāsa)의 어순에 관한 고찰 -upasarjana, pūrvanipāta 개념을 중심으로

        김현덕 불교학연구회 2017 불교학연구 Vol.53 No.-

        In Sanskrit, the meaning is conveyed through the concept of a distinctive semantic relationship, which is called Kāraka, and the marker Vibhakti, which is determined by Kāraka. So the word-order has no meaning, except in special cases. However, in case of a compound (samāsa) that consists of a semantic combination of a word (pada) and a word, there is a posterior relationship that can be called a word order between the constituents. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the word-order relation of compound constituents in terms of 'Pūrvanipāta' and ‘Upasarjana’. Pāṇini defined more than 100 grammatical rules related to the compound in Aṣṭādhyāyī. Of these, the rules governing the word-order in relation to the above concepts are given in P. 2.2.30-P. 2.2.38. According to these rules, the word-order of the constituents of a compound is basically determined by the operation in grammar (Kārya) of Upasarjana, which is called Pūrvanipāta. Upasarjana is a name (Saṁjñā) for those that will be presented as a prathamā-vibhakti in all the Compound-rules (Samāsa-śāstra), and has the feature of preceding in order in a compound. This name is also closely related to the ‘relation of predicate and subject’ (Viśeṣaṇa-viśeṣya-bhāva), because it also implies Guṇa, i.e., apradhāna, in terms of etymology. So it precedes in order in a compound. While the above rules have a restrictive effect on a compound by ‘apūrvanipāta’ and ‘paranipāta’, it is confirmed that such restrictions also act optionally. As a result, it has been confirmed that the positional relationship of the compound constituents is also controlled by the intention of the Speaker (Vivakṣā). The review of the rules on word-order can be meaningful for the analysis of compounds that are unlikely to be understood without the help of the annotations. 산스크리트어에서는 카라카(kāraka)라는 특유한 의미론 관계를 표시하는 개념과 이 개념에 의해 결정되는 표지인 비박티(vibhakti)를 통해 문장의 의미가 전달되는 까닭에 특수한 경우를 제외하고, 어순은 큰 의미를 가지지 않는다. 하지만 단어(pada)와 단어의 의미론적 결합으로 이루어지는 복합어(samāsa)의 경우, 구성요소들 사이에 어순(語順)이라 불릴 수 있는 선후관계가 존재한다. 이 논문의 목적은 복합어 구성요소의 어순관계를, ‘pūrva-nipāta’와 ‘upasarjana’라는 개념 등을 중심으로 고찰하는데 있다. 『아슈타댜이』(Aṣṭādhyāyī)에는 복합어와 관련하여 파니니(Pāṇini)가 규정한 약 100여개에 달하는 문법규칙이 있다. 이들 중에서 위의 개념들과 관련하여 어순을 규정하는 규정은 P. 2.2.30-P. 2.2.38에서 찾아볼 수 있다. 이들 규정에 따르면, 복합어는 기본적으로 ‘pūrva-nipāta’라고 불리는 ‘upasarjana’에 관한 문법조작(kārya)에 의해 그 구성요소들의 복합 순서가 결정된다. ‘upasarjana’는 모든 복합어 관련 규칙(samāsa-śāstra)에서 제1격 어미(prathamā)로 제시되는 것에 대한 명칭(saṁjñā)으로, 순서상 선행(先行)하는 특징을 지닌다. 이 명칭은 또한 어원적인 측면에서도 guṇa 즉, apradhāna를 의미하는 까닭에, ‘한정・피한정 관계’(viśeṣaṇa-viśeṣya-bhāva)와 밀접히 관련되고, 그러한 의미에서 선행하게 된다. 위의 규칙들은 ‘apūrva-nipāta’와 ‘para-nipāta’라는 조건에 의해 제한적인 효력을 지니지만, 그러한 제한 역시 선택적으로 작용하고 있음이 확인된다. 결과적으로 복합어 구성요소들의 위치관계 역시 화자의 의도(vivakṣā)에 지배를 받게 된다는 점이 확인되는 바, 때때로 주석의 도움이 없이는 납득하기 힘든 독특함을 보이는 복합어의 분석을 위해서도 ‘어순’ 결정에 관한 규정의 고찰은 의미를 지닐 수 있다.

      • KCI우수등재

        전문대생의 자아개념과 학교생활 적응도에 관한 연구

        김현덕 한국교육학회 2000 敎育學硏究 Vol.38 No.3

        본 연구의 목적은 전문대생들의 자아개념과 대학생활 적응과의 관계를 분석하고, 이들의 배경변인별 자아개념과 학교생활 적응도의 차이를 밝히고자 하는데 있다. 연구결과 전문대학 학생들의 자아개념과 학교생활 적응도의 상관관계가 높은 것으로 나타났다. 특히 7가지 자아개념 중 자신을 가치롭게 여기고 자신을 능력 잇는 사람이라고 여기는 일반적 자아는 대학생활 적응의 모든 영역과 높은 상관을 보이고 있었다. 학교생활 적응도 분석결과 전문대학 학생들은 학과 공부에 의욕이 낮고, 심리적·정서적 불안을 경험하고 있고, 이는 대학생활 부적응의 가장 큰 문제로 나타나고 있다. 이의 해결을 위해 학교측은 학생 상담이나 집단지도 프로그램을 강화할 뿐 아니라, 학생들의 학습의욕과 자신감을 높이는 방안도 강구해야 할 것이다. There have been few studies on junior college students' adjustment to college. Junior college students have some distinctive characteristics, being compared with four-year college students. Their level of academic ability is generally low and their self evaluation is also generally low. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between junior college students' self concept and their adjustment to college. The field study was implemented during the period between October 18th through October 30th, 1999. The data was collected from three junior colleges which were selected in consideration with regional proportion and students' scores in college entrance examination. A total of 447 samples was used for a statistical analysis. The results indicated that the students' self concept was one of the most important factor for junior college students to adjust themselves to college. In this study, both 'self-concept' and 'student adjustment to college' are multifaceted. Among 7 areas of self-concept, self-esteem was the most highly related to all areas of student adjustment to college, and the academic self-concept was the second highly related to them. They also showed that the scores in the students' non-academic self concept including moral ethical self, social, psychological, and physical self were higher than those in student's academic concept. This finding represents that the students in junior colleges generally come to two-year colleges as they can not enter four-year universities. Among three groups of variables that affect the student's self concept, demographic variables were found to be more important than family variables. Particularly, friendship, sex, and age in demographic variables were the three most influential factors that affect the student's self concept. With regard to the junior college students' adjustment to college, the scores in academic and personal-psychological adjustments were lower than those in general and social adjustments. This result indicated that the students in junior college had relatively low motivations in their studies, and experienced psychological and emotional unrests in their college life. The companionship in college was also found to be most influential factor in college adjustment, as in the case for self concept. Finally, some recommendations were suggested to enhance college students' self-concept and their adjustment to college.

      • KCI등재

        Neutron-Capture Cross-Section Measurement for 163Dy in the Neutron Energy Range from 15 to 75 keV

        김현덕,EuijungJung,안정근,이대원,김귀년,Tae-IkRo,민영기,MasayukiIgashira,ToshiroOhsaki,SatoshiMizuno 한국물리학회 2002 THE JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN PHYSICAL SOCIETY Vol.41 No.5

        The neutron-capture cross-sections of 163Dy were measured in the neutron energy range from 15 to 75 keV at the 3-MV Pelletron accelerator of the Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology. Pulsed neutrons were produced from the 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction by bombarding a metallic lithium target with the 1.903-MeV proton beam. The incident neutron spectra were measured by means of a neutron time-of-flight method with a 6Li-glass detector. Capture gamma-rays were detected with a large anti-Compton NaI(Tl) spectrometer. A pulse-height. weighting technique was applied to the capture gamma-ray pulse-height spectra to obtain capture yields. The neutron capture cross-sections were determined relative to the standard capture cross-sections of 197Au. The present results were compared with the previous measurements and the evaluated values of ENDF/B-VI.

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