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This paper outlines the culture of philanthropy in England and Wales from 1870 to 2000. The body of study on this topic is limited, and so this paper constructs a foundation for further in-depth research and evaluation of the long-term development of philanthropy in Britain. To aid in the understanding of the transitional aspects of philanthropy post-1870, Section 2 describes the characteristics of philanthropy pre-1870 when it was at its peak: form of organization, middle-class voluntarism and paternalism, function of social welfare, local-based, democratic and transparent procedures and activity. Sections 3 and 4 discuss changes in the methods and weight of philanthropy between the 1870s and 1945, when the central government enlarged its influence over local affairs and civilagencies, the World Wars broke out, mass society arrived, and the system of the welfare state emerged. During this period when local charities tended to diminish in scope, newly created nationwide philanthropic bodies contributed to the expansion of charitable fields, professionalization of welfare services, and the pioneering of the NGO, even though these charities experienced difficulty in raising funds and recruiting personnel between the wars. Nevertheless, the traditional symbiotic relationship between philanthropy and the public system in the provision of social welfare was maintained. From the 1900s onward, the government, when implementing social security policies and laws, relied on the experience of the philanthropy sector and was willing to cooperate with charitable institutions. Recently, charitable giving has not only become a universal aspect of British civil life, but has also filled an important gap in the welfare state.
19세기 영국 성인 교육기구에 관한 연구는 기계공강습소 실패론과 그에 대한 수정론 이상으로 진전하지 못했고 이마저 산업지역 대도시의 사례에 국한되었다. 기존의 연구는 교육기구들이 중간계급의 연대 활동의 산물로서 시민협회의 성격을 지녔다는 중요한 측면을 간과했다. 이러한 연구의 한계에 대한 인식과 새로운 전망을 바탕으로 본 논문은 비산업지역 동남부 농업지대의 장시인 콜체스터의 기계공강습소와 교양강습소를 탐색했다. 기계공강습소에 대한 이론을 염두에 두고 검토하되 두 강습소의 존폐 및 교육 내용과 활동을 관찰하고, 지역 중간계급의 연대 활동과 다양한 시민협회들 가운데서 두 교육기구의 비중과 역할을 규명하고자 했다. 그 결과 콜체스터의 경우는 교육 내용과 활동 면에서 산업지역 교육기구의 보편성을 나타냄과 동시에 교육기구가 중간계급의 당파적 경쟁심을 가장 노골적으로 드러내는 독특성을 보였다. 즉 중간계급의 공적 영역의 중심부를 차지한 협회 활동에서 토리-앵글리칸 주류가 휘그-비국교도 소수 그룹보다 우위를 확보하는 데 교육기구가 큰 역할을 한 것은 전통적 장시의 보수성을 반영하는 것으로 산업도시의 교육기구에서 발견하기 어려운 현상이었다. Past research on adult-education institutions in 19th-century Britain has rarely proceeded beyond the theory of the failure of the mechanics institutes and its subsequent revisions. Some studies on middle-class culture, which at times deal with adult-education institutions, focus narrowly on cases in industrial centres. As such, current literature has tended to overlook the significant fact that adult-education institutions were civil associations created by voluntary middle-class activity. Research into understanding the formation of whole adult-education institutions in a single city, and the resemblances and differences between institutions across cities has not been attempted until now. To fill the gap in the historical study of the institutions, this paper explores the establishment and extinction of the Mechanics’ Institute and the Literary Institute in Colchester, a market town situated within an agricultural region, by examining the traits of the voluntary organization in the Institutes and their weight and role among the middle-class associations. This new perspective broadens the scope of research on adult-education ventures. It contributes not only to a deeper understanding of the general features of adult-education institutions, but also highlights the peculiarity and educational value of Colchester’s Institutes. Above all, the Institutes in this town revealed the existence of a sense of rivalry among local middle-class organizations. The Literary Institute, which was aligned with Tory-Anglicanism, purposefully accelerated the closure of the Mechanics Institute, which was on the side of Whig-Nonconformity. Ultimately, the educational bodies played a significant role in helping the Tory-Anglicans maintain superiority over Whig-Nonconformists. This phenomenon where the institutes were deeply intertwined with middle-class partisanship was not usually observed in industrial cities. Nevertheless, in their levels of education and activity, Colchester’s institutions showed little difference from their counterparts in other cities and became established as cultural intermediaries and agencies of recreation.
The purpose of this study is to recognize the necessity and management of field experiential learning for middle school students, to find problems of the space for field experiential learning and suggest how to improve the problems. For this purpose, two kinds of methods are adapted ; theoretical method through the existing studies related to field experiential learning and positive method through the questionnaires of middle school students in all the grades and teachers working at middle schools in Pusan. Frequency and Cross Tabulation Analyses are carried out using SPSS for windows.
The Carbon Bond Mechanism N has been developed for use in urban- and regional-scale oxidant models. The photochemical mechanism, CBM4, contains extensive improvements to earlier carbon bond mechanisms in the chemical representations of aromatics, biogenic hydrocarbons, peroxyacetyl nitartes, and formaldehyde. Ozone is produced mainly by nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbon. By altering the initial concentrations of the mechanism, an analysis of the sensitivity of ozone concentrations to VOC/NO_(x) ratios and VOC composition is conducted in this one-dimensional mechanism. Note that it is considered a chemical mechanism in order to understand the photochemical reactions within this mechanism. It analyzed the results of these simulations by applying a NO_(x)-sensitive and a VOC-sensitive regime. These sensitivity regimes are changed to match the relative contribution of VOC and NO_(x) concentrations to ozone production in simulations of two sets.