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The analysis results of urban greening conducted in Gyeongseong(京城), Japanese colonial era are as follows. First, policies related to the protection of forests during the Joseon Dynasty were concentrated in the Joseon royal space and Seongjeosim-ri(城底十里). Foreigners who visited Joseon in the 1890s saw Mindungsan Mountain first. Second, when the Japanese colonial strength began, the division and diagnosis of the cause of the forest devastation in Joseon were carried out. The problem was that he only liked pine trees and did not spare trees. Third, the enlightening Joseon Greening Movement was conducted, and the necessity of trees in cities, ecological roles, and importance as industrial materials were educated. Fourth, April 3, the first day of Emperor Sinmu(神武天皇) since 1911, was designated as a commemorative ceremony day. Fifth, for urban greening in Gyeongseong, four-way forest construction for damaged mountain areas, modern park construction, street tree planting, and green areas for small-scale important spaces were created. Sixth, the seedlings needed for urban greening were carried out through the seedlings led by the Governor-General. Urban greening is assumed to contain only the temporal nature of modernity, but the application for practical terms and techniques began in Japanese colonial era. 일제강점기 경성에서 실행된 도시녹화의 분석 결과는 다음과 같다. 첫째, 조선시대 산림의 보호와 관련 정책은 조선 왕실과 내사산을 중심으로 한 성저십리에 집중되어 있었다. 1890년대 조선을 방문한 외국인 시선에서 민둥산은 크게 각인되었다. 둘째, 일제강점이 시작되자 일제는 산림 황폐에 대한 원인 분석과 진단을 실시했다. 조선인 특유의 소나무 위주의 애호, 공익심 부족에 남벌과 도벌, 수목에 대한 애림사상 부족을 거론했다. 셋째, 조선인의 수목 인식 향상을 위해서 계몽적인 조선 녹화운동을 실시했고, 도시의 수목 필요성, 생태적 역할, 산업 소재로의 중요성을 인식시켰다. 넷째, 1911년부터 신무천황 제일인 4월 3일을 기념식수일로 지정하였다. 다섯째, 경성의 도시녹화를 위해서 훼손된 산지에 대한 사방공사, 녹지를 유지한 곳의 근대공원 조성, 경성내 중요 도로의 가로수 식재, 소규모 도시구조적 공간의 녹지대 조성으로 실체화했다. 여섯째, 도시녹화를 위해서 필요한 묘목은 총독부 주도의 종묘장을 통해서 진행되었다. 도시녹화는 현대라는 시간성만을 내포하고 있다고 가정되나, 실질적인 용어와 기법에 대한 강구는 일제강점기에 시작되었다.
The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of science classes using the geological materials of a locality on academic achievement and scientific attitude of elementary school students. For this study, the class unit is ‘stratum and fossils’, 2nd semester of 3rd grade, and the geological materials of a locality is applied for class. The geological materials used in teaching and learning of ‘stratum and fossil’ unit are photographs & video data relating to geological phenomenon, and rock & fossils samples collected in Jeollanam-do province. This study has been aimed at 2 classes 47 students of 3rd grade in G elementary school of G metropolitan. One class 23 students are the research group to apply science class using the geological materials in a locality, on the order hand another class 24 students are the comparison group to apply general science classes. The results of this study are follows. First, a positive relationship was identified between academic achievement and science class applying the geological materials in a locality in the research group. This shows that academic achievement was improved by science class applying the geological materials in a locality. Second, a positive relationship was identified between scientific attitude and science class applying the geological materials in a locality in the research group. This shows that scientific attitude was improved by science class applying the geological materials in a locality. Third, by the results of interview with students who was participated in science class applying the geological materials in a locality, it shows that they have interest and curiosity about local geology. Above results means that science class applying the geological materials in a locality help elementary schools students improve the educational effect about ‘stratum and fossils’ unit. Thus, it is needed to use the geological materials of a locality in science class relating to the geology units of elementary school science in order to improve academic achievement and scientific attitude of elementary school students.
본 논문의 목적은 엘니뇨현상의 예측을 위한 확률모델의 개발과 그 응용에 있다. 이를 위해, 먼저 태평양 적도지역의 월평균 해면수온의 편차시계열을 기초로 하여 엘 니뇨 현상의 지속기간, 강도의 결정방법과 이 현상의 출현에 대한 판별방법을 제안하 였다. 다음으로 과거 40년(1951-1990) 자료의 편차시계열에 나타난 엘니뇨의 연변동 성, 주기성, 종속성 등 확률구조 및 통계적 특성을 파악하였고, 이 결과를 엘니뇨현상 의 예측을 위한 시계열 비선형확률모델을 유도하였는데 이용하였다. 마지막으로 유도 된 확률모델의 실제적용을 위한 통계절차를 제안하였다. This paper is concerned with the development and application of a stochastic model for predicting E1 nino phenomenon. For this, first a general criterion for determining E1 nino phenomenon, including period and strength, which is based on partial sum of monthly sea surface temperatures (SST) anomalies, is proposed, Secondly, the annual fluctuations, periodicity and dependence of monthly mean of equatorial Pacific SST during the period 1951-1990 are analyzed. Based on these, time series nonlinear regression model for the prediction of SST have been derived. A statistical procedure for using the model to predict the SST have been derived. A statistical procedure for using the model to predict the SST level is also proposed.
In this study, the teaching-learning materials in the natural science text book for 4th grade, written based on the 6th natural science curriculum, were analysed and classified with preparing method. The purpose of this study is to help science teachers ready for the teaching-learning materials, by providing the some information about the means and method of preparation and resources. As a results, the total number of these materials is 697 and the number of kinds is 246. And the number of kinds with preparing method is 50 for purchase(69.9%), 36 for gathering(14.6%), 18 for collecting(7.3%), 8 for manufacturing(3.2%), 4 for breeding-growing(1.6%) and 30 for others(12.2%) respectively. This study, furthermore, suggests the several substitution materials, and developed outdoor learning materials with relation to stratum and fossil as well as manufactured slide program showing various environmental pollution in Kwangju and Chunnam local area.
We have developed VTR and Slide Program for the environmental education of elementary school in Kwang Ju and Cheonnam province. These were manufactured after due consideration of local properties. The characteristics of these materials were summerized as follow : 1) These systematically treated the three basic concepts and ten domains of environmental education without overlapping and disproportionating of contents. 2) These contents were closely connected with experiences and knowledge of elementary school children about the local society and natural phenomena. 3) These will be effectively accomplished the objects of environmental Education in short period, because of considering school hours and applicative efficiency. 4) These will be used to supplement the environmental education for the students of teachers college, elementary school teachers, and local inhabitants.
Background: To investigate the mediating effect of learning flow in the relationship between blended learning achievement and learning satisfaction in dental hygiene students, and to identify whether face-to-face studies should be substituted with non-face-to-face studies. Methods: Total 134 dental hygiene students, who underwent blended learning in the dental hygiene class during the first semester of 2021, were recruited. The research tools were blended learning achievement, learning flow, and learning satisfaction, comprising 15 questions in total. Mediation regression analysis was used to analyze the mediating effect of learning flow in the relationship between learning achievement and learning satisfaction, and that between each variable. Results: Learning flow and learning satisfaction (r=0.490, p<0.001) were positively interrelated, and the interrelation between variables was statistically significant. Class environment had the biggest effect as a subfactor of class achievement, and it appeared to have an effect on class attitude and learning motive. The effect of learning flow on learning satisfaction was statistically significant. Learning flow was partially mediated by both blended learning achievement and learning satisfaction. Learning flow was directly related to blended learning satisfaction and learning achievement. Conclusion: The results showed the possible use of blended learning in dental hygiene theory and practical subjects.