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김하정 ( Ha Jeong Kim ),김민재 ( Min Jae Kim ),이은주 ( Eun Joo Lee ),최철훈 ( Chel Hun Choi ),김태중 ( Tae Joong Kim ),이정원 ( Jeong Won Lee ),김병기 ( Byoung Gie Kim ),성창옥 ( Chang Ok Seong ),배덕수 ( Duk Soo Bae ) 대한산부인과학회 2009 Obstetrics & Gynecology Science Vol.52 No.7
광인대는 자궁, 난관, 부난소 및 자궁외측에서 골반 복막으로써 두 겹으로 둘러싸고 있는 일종의 인대로서, 난소간막 (mesovarium)을 거쳐 난소와 연결된다. 광인대의 종양은 복강이나 골반에서 발생한 암이 이차적으로 광인대를 침범하는 경우는 흔하지만 원발성 광인대 종양은 매우 드물게 발생한다. 원발성 광인대 종양 중에서 근종이 가장 흔하고 그 다음으로 경계성 장액성 유두모양 종양이 흔하다. 원발성 육종이나 고분화도 종양은 매우 드물게 보고 된 바 있다. 저자들은 매우 드문 형태인 광인대에서 발생한 악성 투명세포암 1예를 경험하였기에 간단한 문헌고찰과 함께 보고하는 바이다. Primary broad ligament tumors are a rare entity, although secondary involvement of broad ligament by a malignancy arising elsewhrere in the abdomen/pelvis is common. Among the primary broad ligament tumors, leiomyoma is the most frequent histopathological type followed by serous papillary cystadenoma of borderline malignancy. Primary sarcomas and high-grade carcinomas have been extremely rarely reported. Because of the rarity of disease, its treatment policy, follow-up strategy and prognosis are yet to be established and it is managed as an ovarian malignancy. We had experienced a case of clear cell adenocarcinoma arising from broad ligament and report this case with a brief review of literature.
현재 국내 프랜차이즈 업계의 가맹점주 관리 시스템의 필요성이 점차 대두되고 있다. 국내 프랜차이즈 업계가 외형에 집중되고 부피가 커지고 있는 반면에 내부적인 가맹점 관리시스템의 부재 및 부실이 가맹점의 폐점과 분쟁으로 나타나고 있으며 본사의 가맹점 관리시스템이 필요하다는 것을 증명해 주고 있다.본 연구에서는 이런 문제점을 보완하고 시스템화 시키는 방안을 보험사와 보완하고 새로 운 시스템 구축 및 활용하도록 연구해 본다. Domestic franchise industry is growing rapidly as a promising business in 21st century and also ordinary people business. Domestic franchise headquarters and franchisees have increased exponentially. However, because of tough competition in the industry, headquarters’ lack o fawareness of recruiting and managing franchisees, and reckless expansion strategy for the structural problem of profit structure and lack of experts, systematic management and support system are not going well. For these reasons, the need of franchisee management system is growing up in this industry. Domestic franchise industry is focused on appearance, the volume, while absence and lowness of internal management systems are making stores shut down and conflicts proving necessity of management system.In this study, we find and study the way to compensate these problems and systematize by cooperating within surance companies to manage franchisees, and eventually to be able to set up and use new systems including franchise management system, initial services, on goin gservices, lega lservices ,tax services, labor services, and financial analysis and planning services.
김하정 ( Ha Jeong Kim ),( Chel Hun Choi ),( Woo Seok Lee ),( Hwang Shin Park ),( Tae Jong Song ),( Min Kyu Kim ),( Yoo Young Lee ),( Tae Joong Kim ),( Jeong Won Lee ),( Je Ho Lee ),( Duk Soo Bae ),( Byou 대한산부인과학회 2010 대한산부인과학회 학술대회 Vol.96 No.-
Purpose: This study was conducted to investigate the correlation between degrees of health promotion behaviors and life satisfaction and effects of health promotion behaviors on life satisfaction in rural elderly women living alone. Methods: A descriptive correlation study was conducted with 189 rural elderly women living alone aged 65 or older in four senior counties in Jeollanam-do. Descriptive statistics, t-test, ANOVA, Scheffe? test, Pearson``s correlation, and multiple regression. Results: The subjects’ health promotion behaviors and life satisfaction were significantly positive. Among the factors influencing the subjects’ life satisfaction, nutrition and diet showed the greatest positive effects, followed by exercise and activity, and drinking and smoking. Among them, drinking and smoking had significantly negative influence. Conclusion: Among the health promotion behaviors that influenced life satisfaction, nutrition and diet, exercise and activity, and drinking and smoking were most significant factors. Therefore, this study provided basic data for improving the life satisfaction among rural elderly women living alone.
This study was conducted to find the nature of English learning experienced by college students who have studied the language as a required subject for 9 years since they were third grade in elementary school. The participants in this study were eight college students from the area of Busan and Gyeongsangnam-Do. The data were collected from June to November, 2016, and 2~3 times in-depth interviews were performed, and Giorgi(1997)’s phenomenological method was applied to analyze the data. As a result, 219 significant statements were derived, which were grouped 27 sub-components, and then were divided into 7 categories of themes. The 7 themes are ‘pleasant initial encounter with English’, ‘English learning as a simple labor of brains’, ‘feeling like studying English not for the language learning but for getting good grade’, ‘evaluating oneself and forming positive/negative perception of English on what others do’, ‘taking a view that the real life English and studying it at school are distinct’, ‘believing that English as a strong weapon for life even it’s often a source of problem’, and ‘having a mind of one’s own learning goal and the way of learning English’. From the research findings, this study have found what are the essential meanings of learning English for college students. It will be a toehold to plan the efficient English learning coaching program for the elementary, middle, and high school students, including their parents based on the results. And it will help to design the curriculum which will be suitable for the Korean students.
쇠똥구리는 동물의 분을 이용하여 토질을 개선시켜 지구 생태계에 매우 중요한 역할을 담당하는 곤충이다. 이 연구에서 수컷 SD rat는 5군으로 분리되어 PBS, 쇠똥구리 에탄올 추출물, 쇠똥구리 아세톤 추출물, 귀뚜라미 아세톤 추출물, 양성대조군으로 새우기름 그룹으로 나누었다. 13주령 쥐에 고지방식이로 비만을 7주간 유도하고, 20주령부터 시험물질을 고지방 식이를 하면서 한 달간 투여하였다. 쇠똥구리 추출물의 투여는 체중과 복부지방과 부고환지방 중량의 감소로 이어졌다. 지질의 산화적 스트레스는 간에서 MDA를 측정하여 평가하였으나, 군간에 유의성이 없었다. 단백질의 산화적 스트레스는 혈액에서 단백질 카르보닐 양으로 측정되었는데 쇠똥구리 에탄올 추출물과 쇠똥구리 아세톤 추출물에서 유의성있게 산화적 스트레스가 감소되었다. 반면에 간에서의 단백질 카르보닐 양은 군간에 유의성이 없었다. 당뇨 혈관내피세포를 효소면역분석법을 사용하여 세포부착단백질인 laminin과 fibronectin 수준을 측정하였더니 쇠똥구리 추출물에서 유의성이 있었다. 사이토카인 IL-10, IL-1β, VEGF, eNOS를 측정하였는데 IL-10에서 쇠똥구리 에탄올 추출물과 쇠똥구리 아세톤 추출물에서 유의성이 있었다. 항산화효소인 SOD, GSH-Px 활성은 군간에 유의성은 없었지만, 증가하는 경향이 있었고, CAT활성은 쇠똥구리 추출물에서 유의성있게 증가되었다. 지방조직 내의 포화지방산 비율이 감소하는 경향이 나타났으며, 불포화지방산과 다가불포화지방산은 증가하였다. 쇠똥구리 추출물의 지방조직 감소 및 여러 지질 수치의 향상효과는 쇠똥구리 추출물을 기능성 곤충 소재로 이용할 수 있는 가능성을 제시한다. Dung beetle (Catharsius molossus, CA) is a well-known group of insects thanks to their exploitation of animal feces, a behavioral trait with a global impact on earth’s ecosystems. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of CA extract on a high-fat diet in SD rats. Male rats were divided into 5 groups. Animals were fed on a high-fat diet for seven weeks before and dung beetle extract for a month during the administration. Weight gain was decreased in ethanol extract from CA group. Administration of CA extract reduced the organ weight of testis and kidney, and adipose tissue weight. Lipid oxidative stress was evaluated measuring malondialdehyde level in liver. There were no significant differences in groups. Protein oxidative stress was evaluated measuring protein carbonyl content in blood. The protein carbonyl in blood was significantly decreased in ethanol and acetone extracted dung beetle groups (p<0.05). Meanwhile, the protein carbonyl in hepatocyte was not significant among the groups. Fibronectin and laminin by using D-HUVEC cell in vitro were measured by ELISA assay. There was significance in CA extract. The level of IL-10, IL-1β, VEGF, eNOS was evaluated by ELISA. There was significance in IL-10 compared to control (p<0.05). SOD and GPx tended to increase by CA extract. Furthermore, CAT was increased significantly by CA extract (p<0.05). After administration of CA extracts the composition of saturated fatty acid in adipose tissue tend to decrease, while unsaturated fatty acid increases. In conclusion, dung beetle had anti-hyperglycemia effects of oxidative stress and antioxidant activity.
As the types of wedding ceremonies become diversified, and consumers’ needs become more selective, greater importance is given to wedding planners’ roles in the wedding industry, and consumers require differentiated types of wedding service. As a preliminary qualitative study in this field, an ethnographic study was conducted to identify factors valued by consumers when selecting a wedding planner in the wedding planner market, which has rapidly grown in recent years. An in-depth interview was performed with eight participants in terms of wedding planner utilization type and consumers’ understanding of wedding preparation with a wedding planner. The collected data were analyzed through taxonomy, component analysis and decision table analysis; for validation, professional wedding planners were asked to review the items valued by consumers in selecting a wedding planner. Four factors - expense characteristic, wedding planners, wedding consulting companies, and customer characteristics - were identified, along with eight sub-factors (capability, service attitude, technical communication, personal factors, wedding planner encounter paths, spouse’s satisfaction status, and companies). Out of these, price (within budget), wedding planners’ capability, wedding planners’ service attitude are expected to be meaningful in further research because they were found to be attributes commonly valued by every respondent. This study is significant in that it has made a new approach to understanding wedding planner selection attributes through ethnographic research and identified new wedding planner selection attributes.
면역 시스템의 림프구는 B 림프구와 T 림프구 두 종류로 나눌 수 있다. B 림프구는 플라즈마 세포로 분화하여 항체를 생성하는 체액성 면역을 담당하며, T 림프구는 다른 세포나 세균을 죽이는 세포성 면역을 담당한다. 고전적으로 B 림프구와 T 림프구의 작용은 한 방향으로 이뤄졌다. T 림프구는 B 림프구의 분화를 촉진하고 면역글로불린종류의 전환을 조절한다. T 림프구가 부족한 경우 B 림프구의 부족을 초래함이 보고되어 있다. 그러나 최근에 역으로 B 림프구가 T 림프구의 분화와 활성을 조절할 수 있다는 보고가 있다. 예를 들어, B 림프구는 CD8+ T림프구의 tolerance를 직접 조절할 수 있고, TGF-β의 분비를 통해 T 림프구의 anergy를 유도할 수 있다. 본 연구는 LPS에 의해 자극된 B 림프구가 수지상세포에서 IL-12의 분비를 억제하여 Th1 림프구의 분화를 억제할 수 있음을 보여준다. 이 억제는 B 림프구와 수지상세포의 직접적인 interaction에 의해 일어나는 것이 아니며 B 림프구가 수지상세포의 성숙을 조절하여 일어나는 것도 아니다. B 림프구에서 분비되는 soluble factor가 LPS에 의해 증가되는 수지상세포의 IL-12p35 transcription을 억제한다. 이 결과들은 B 림프구가 매개하는 새로운 면역억제 기전이 존재함을 보여준다. 이것은 고전적인 방향성을 가진 T 림프구에 의한 B 림프구 작용조절로 면역반응이 결정되는 것이 아니라 T 림프구와 B 림프구가 서로 작용을 하여 면역평형을 결정하는 기전이 존재함을 보여준다. The lymphocyte component of the immune system is divided into B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes. B lymphocytes produce antibodies (humoral immunity) via maturation into plasma cells, and T lymphocytes kill other cells or organisms (cellular immunity). A traditional immunological paradigm is that B lymphocyte and T lymphocyte interactions are a one-way phenomenon, with T lymphocytes helping to induce the terminal differentiation of B lymphocytes into immunoglobulin class-switched plasma cells. A deficiency of T lymphocytes was reported to result in defective B lymphocyte function. However, evidence for a reciprocal interaction between B and T lymphocytes is emerging, with B lymphocytes influencing the differentiation and effector function of T lymphocytes. For example, B lymphocytes have been shown to induce direct tolerance of antigen-specific CD8+ T lymphocytes and induce T lymphocytes anergy via transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) production. The present study showed that LPS-stimulated B lymphocytes inhibited the differentiation of Th1 lymphocytes by inhibiting the production of interleukin-12 (IL-12) from dendritic cells. An interaction between the B lymphocytes and dendritic cells was not needed for this inhibition, and the B lymphocytes did not alter dendritic cell maturation. B lymphocyte-derived soluble factor (BDSF) suppressed the LPS-induced IL-12p35 transcription in the dendritic cells. Overall, these results point to a novel B lymphocyte- mediated immune suppressive mechanism. The findings cast doubt on the traditional paradigm of immunological interactions involving B lymphocyte and T lymphocyte interactions.
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common allergic eczematous skin disorder in humans, the incidence of which is increasing worldwide. Protease activated receptor 2 (PAR2) is a mediator of innate immunity expressed on keratinocytes that can induce Th2-related inflammation in AD. Using a validated canine model of spontaneously occurring AD, we previously assessed the expression of PAR2 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) and reported that the expression pattern of skin biopsy samples differed in normal and atopic dogs. Pilot studies in our canine atopic model have also shown decrease tight junction protein expression such as and Zonula Occludens-1 (ZO-1) This study investigated whether PAR2 mediates the expression of TSLP and ZO-1 in canine primary epithelial keratinocytes (CPEKs) by assessing the effects of a PAR2-antagonist (PAR2-ant) on PAR2, TSLP, and ZO-1 immunofluorescence. CPEKs were cultured with serine protease over time with or without PAR2-antagonist and the expressions were quantitated by real-time PCR and fluorescence intensity in CPEKs. Protease significantly increased the expressions of PAR2 and TSLP, but decreased the expression of ZO-1 at each specific incubation time. PAR2-antagonist blocked those effects on each mediator and tight junction. Therefore, blockage of PAR2 can suppress the trypsin-activated initiation of inflammatory signals and the disturbance of tight junction protein CPEK.