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Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is a chronic inflammatory rheumatic disease commonly associated with plaque psoriasis that, manifests with peripheral arthritis, dactylitis, enthesitis, and axial involvement. PsA can be progressive and harmful, resulting in joint deformities, functional impairments, low quality of life, and increased mortality. It was found that both non-pharmacologic and pharmacologic treatment could improve conditions of PsA. Recently launched biological products have become the main therapeutic agents used for treating PsA unresponsive to conventional disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs. This paper aims at introducing available biologics for PsA management in Korea. The tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitor was the first approved biological product to show outstanding efficacy for treating PsA. Ustekinumab, designed for blocking interleukin-12/23, has been approved and widely used. Interleukin-17 inhibitors such as secukinumab and ixekizumab have also been introduced to improve the symptoms of PsA. It was found that many patients with PsA experienced a dramatic improvement in their condition after using these biological products. Additionally, new immunological modulators such as phosphodiesterase inhibitors and Janus kinase inhibitors were approved for the treatment of PsA.
The dynamic behavior of crankshaft-bearing system in scroll compressor has been investigated using the combined methodologies of finite elements and transfer matrices. The finite element formulation is proposed including the field element for a shaft section and the point element at balancer weight locations, bearing locations, etc., whereas the conventional method is used with the elements. The Houbolt method is used to consider the time march for the integration of the system equations. The linear stiffness and damping coefficients are calculated for a finite cylindrical fluid-film bearing by solving the Reynolds equation, using finite difference method. The orbital response of crankshaft supported on the linear bearing model is obtained, considering balancer weights of motor rotor. And, the steady state displacement of crankshaft are compared with a variation in balancer weight. The loci of crankshaft at bearing locations are composed of the synchronous whirl component and the non-synchronous whirl component.
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이 연구의 목적은 약 40여 년간 승마를 하면서 살아온 한 승마인의 삶의 전기를 탐색하는 것이다. 이를 위하여 질적연구 방법론의 하나인 내러티브–전기연구를 이용하였다. 연구자는 선택적 자료수집 방법을 이용하여 우리나라 승마계의 거목이라고 할 수 있는 한국마사회 소속 한 승마감독을 연구참여자로 선정하였다. 연구참여자를 대상으로 심층인터뷰를 수행하였으며, 참여자와 관련된 언론 보도자료, 기고문 등의 연구자료도 수집하였다. 연구결과는 다음과 같다. 첫째, 연구참여자에게 있어 승마학습은 그에게 삶의 의미 그 자체였다. 승마를 통해서 삶의 의미가 구성되었으며, 승마를 하면서 오늘을 살아내고 미래를 계획하였다. 둘째, 연구참여자의 인생에 대한 이해와 해석, 인생사의 의미 구성에 있어서 승마학습은 연구참여자의 존재를 의미 있게 해주면서, 연구참여자 자신을 둘러싸고 있는 환경과의 의미 있는 관계 맺기, 그리고 현재와 미래를 연결해 주는 수단과 목적으로서의 본연적인 역할을 수행하고 있었다. 연구참여자에게 승마는 인생의 의미와 목적을 이해하고 해석하게 해주며, 삶의 존재 가치를 실현시키는 수단으로 기능하고 있다. The purpose of this study was to explore the most prominent equestrian rider who has been riding for about 40 years in South Korea. In order to successfully achieve the research goals, narrative methodology(biographical study) was used. Using the selective data collection method, the researcher selected a Korean horse riding supervisor, who is considered to be a giant of Korean equestrian field as a research participant. In-depth interviews with the rider were conducted and research materials such as press releases and articles related to the research participant were also collected. The research findings are as follows: First, for the research participant, equestrian learning was the meaning of life for him. Through equestrian learning, the meaning of life was formed, and while riding, he survived today and planned the future. Second, in understanding and interpreting the life of the research participant and in the meaning composition of the life history, equestrian learning made it possible to make a meaningful relationship with the environment surrounding the research participant while making the existence of research participants meaningful. For the research participant, equestrian learning allows understanding and interpretation of the meaning and purpose of life, and serves as a means of realizing the existence value of life.
In this study, a dynamic analysis of the reciprocating compression mechanism considering viscous friction force of a piston used in small refrigeration compressors is performed. The length of cylinder in this class of compressors is shortening to diminish the frictional losses of the piston-cylinder system. So, the contacting length between piston and cylinder liner is in variable with the rotating crank angle around the BDC of the reciprocating piston. In the problem formulation of the compression mechanism dynamics, the change in bearing length of the piston and all corresponding viscous forces and moments are considered in order to determine the trajectories of piston and crankshaft. The piston orbits for viscous friction model and Coulomb friction model were used to compare the effect of the friction forces of piston on the dynamic trajectories of piston. To investigate the effect of friction force acting on the piston for the dynamic characteristics of crankshaft, comparison of the crankshaft loci is given in both viscous model and Coulomb model. Results show that the viscous friction force of piston must be considered in calculating for the accurate dynamic characteristics of the reciprocating compression mechanism.
The theoretical investigation is done on the dynamic behavior of a crank shaft used in a scroll compressor. The compression performance of a scroll compressor is directly influenced by the sealing characteristics between fixed and orbiting scrolls, which is related with the dynamic behavior of a scroll compressor. Analyzing the constrained power transmitting system is came to be of importance, accordingly. The equations of motion and interacting forces of a scroll compressor are derived and solved numerically in this paper. The locus of the crank shaft is also obtained by employing the reaction force caused by the oil film of journal bearing. The results show that the crank shaft of a scroll compressor has considerably stable rotating locus.
In this study, a numerical analysis for the piston secondary dynamics of small refrigeration reciprocating compressors is performed. In general, the length of cylinder in this class of compressors is shortened to diminish the frictional losses of the piston-cylinder system. So, the contacting length between piston and cylinder wall is in variable with the rotating crank angle around the BDC of the reciprocating piston. In the problem formulation of the piston dynamics, the change in bearing length of the piston and all corresponding forces and moments are considered in order to determine the piston trajectory, velocity and acceleration at each step. A Newton-Raphson procedure was employed in solving the secondary dynamic equations of the piston. The developed computer program can be used to calculate the entire piston trajectory and the hydrodynamic force and moment as functions of crank angle under compressor running conditions. The results explored the effects of the radial clearance, lubricant viscosity, length of the cylinder wall, and pin location on the stability of the piston.
A reciprocating compressor unit with variable rotating speed driven by BLDC motor is mounted Inside hermetic chamber on an internal suspension composed of 4 roil springs and a discharge pipe. A method for predicting the dynamic behavior of compressor body is required for a reduction of transmitted vibrations. The mechanical characteristics of spring and discharge pipe stiffness properties have been obtained from experimental tests and mass moment of inertia of the compressor body iron CAD. To confirm the vibration model for the compressor body, free vibration analyses are performed with theoretical and experimental methods. results for analytical investigations on the dynamic behavior of the compressor body and the transmitted forces to the hermetic chamber through the suspension elements are Presented.