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Sleep disturbance and restless legs syndrome (RLS) among uremic patients is known to be high, but data on the prevalence, clinical significance, and causative factors are limited. A semiquantitative sleep and RLS questionnaire was distributed to 62 chronic hemodialysis(HD) patients. 74.5N had sleep complaints and frequent awakening was the most frequent specific sleep complaints followed by daytime sleepiness. Presence of diabetes mellitus(DM), RLS, depression, high CRP level, low intact parathyroid hormone level, low subjective global assessment score, and short HD duration were associated with more sleep complaints. 58.3N had RLS and presence of DM, low serum albumin level were also associated with more severe RLS. But Kt/V, protein catabolic rate, hematocrit, plasma bicarbonate level, use of erythropoietin and sleep medication were not associated with sleep complaints and RLS. Sleep problems and RLS are comrnon in HD patients and seem to be associated with malnutrition. Presence of DM, depression, and RLS are likely to contribute the high prevalence of sleep disturbance.
분광광도계를 이용하여 측정한 치과용 색조가이드 탭의 색상은 탭 표면의 굴곡정도, 적층 효과, 그리고 분광광도계의 측정구 크기에 따라 차이가 생긴다. 본 연구의 목적은 색상가이드 탭 (Vitapan 3D Master)의 표면을 편평하게 연마한 후 색상 좌표값의 변화를 측정하고, 분광광도계의 측정구 크기가 색조탭의 색상에 어떤 영향을 주는지 평가하기 위한 것이다. 색조탭의 색상을 2 종의 분광광도계를 이용하여 탭의 표면 연마 전후에 2 가지 크기의 측정구 (3 x 8-mm 직사각형, 3-mm 원형)로 측정하였다. 표면 연마후 색상, 명도, 채도 그리고 CIE a* 와 b*의 변화를 측정하였다. 표면 연마와 측정구의 크기가 색상 좌표값에 미치는 영향을 2원 분산분석법을 이용하여 분석하였다 (a=0.05). 연마 후 색상의 변화에 대한 측정구 크기의 영향은 pairedt-test (a=0.05)를 이용하여 분석하였다. 색조탭의 표면을 연마한 후 측정한 명도, 채도, CIE a* 및 b* 값은 측정구의 크기와 관계없이 연마전보다 높은 값을 보였다. 표면연마와 측정구의 크기는 색상 좌표값에 영향을 주었으며, 이 둘 간에는 유의한 상관관계가 있었다. (p<0.01). 연마후의 색상 변화는 측정구의 크기에 의하여 유의한 영향을 받았다 (p<0.01). 연마 전, 후 색조탭의 색상 좌표값은 유의한 상관관계를 보였다 (r2 = 0.239~0.993, p<0.01). 향후 곡면체에 대한 분광복사 측정법 또는 비접촉 측정법이 깊이 있게 연구되어야 할 것으로 보인다.
In 1997, because of IMF relief financial situation, the enterprises is exacted to adopt international norm and the international method and as one of international norms and methods, we introduced to shareholder proposal system at Securities Exchange Act(1997) and Commercial Law(1998). Some scholars think the usefulness of shareholder proposal system to skeptical but it is very important system that strengthen the function of shareholder meeting by inducing participation of shareholder to shareholder meeting with document voting system. But the most important problem of korean shareholder proposal is the fact that only board of company has the discretion in writting proposal fact at proxy materials. In case of the United States, To omit a shareholder proposal with the reason which is improper proposal, the company must receive an prior approval from the SEC. When considers reviewal person and mehtod to judgement of writting shareholder proposal(lawful characteristic or appropriate characteristic of shareholder proposal), there is a possibility of trying to think with 2 branches. It is a method of review by audit committee which is composed of outside director or by audit and by the 3rd agency in outside. But when considering the actuality of korea company circumstance, it is difficult to use of the first method because of special characteristic and independence problems of outside director or audit. thus It is due to mean to investigate the second method. For example, That is SEC No-action Letter process in United States. In United States, The legal adviser of the company usually determine by SEC N0-action Letter in writting shareholder proposal at proxy materials. Because It is not enough accumulated the judicial precedent in this field and the SEC almost doesn't contradict to No-action Letter, special lawyers relation to Securities Act is thinking No-action Letter as things of practical law. Thus, SEC No-action Letter is used in rule at practical affairs or operated with the judgement which has a legal binding force at times. Scholars says that No-action Letter doesn't bind SEC, Court and parties in the legal character. And there is not a legal binding force but also court takes attitude which defers strongly to No-action Letter. But nature of No-action Letter is not simple like the content which summarizes in theory. Consequently, No-action Letter system intend to prevention of violation act and evasion, reduction of a legal danger. And because the process is systematized in order to consider profit of relative persons and reduction administrative affairs through proceed clearness, ① respect to prevention of violation act and evasion of legal danger, the system will be able to prevent misappropriation of injustice exclusion of shareholder proposal, and ② it will be able to consider the profit of shareholder and company with clarity of that process and also ③ because No-action Letter is a kind of administrative procedure, it will produce result quickly and simply. Namely, where it is used as prior review system to shareholder proposal, it has merit which is able to review simply and quickly. But To introduce No-action Letter as prior review system to shareholder proposal, it is essential to secure professionalism of review agency as precondition. Thus, it must be prerequisite to put review division which is composed of legal expert like SEC in United States. But in our country case, it will be problem to secure enough professional staff who can reply to application of No-action Letter with responsibility after considering it carefully. Currently it will be insufficient to charge application of No-action Letter in structure of the members of the Securities and Exchange Commission etc. If It is prearranged introduction of the system, first, it must means completeness of structure of the members through budget management. If it is introduced after solving of this preceding subject, our shareholder proposal system which succeed system of United States, after investigating of the other point, also will be able to fix with the system it could be applied practically and as the system it will be albe to activate shareholder proposal