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The vowel harmony is one of the phonological phenomena which is represented by connecting to similar series of vowels. In these days, this vowel harmony has remained as a type of fossilization in modern Korean. That is the "-아/어’ alternation, adverb conjunctive endings as a result of diachronic variation. This variation is regarded to diachronic vowel harmony and also is described as a kind of assimilation. However, Lee Byeong-geun(1976), Kim Ju-won(1999), Lee Mun-Gyu(2004) described that vowel harmony is not an assimilation in modern Korean any more. So this study assumed that there are positive and negative ending synchronically. That is, it is considered being fossilized as vowel harmony in diachronic phonology. For example, they have the formation like this: stem-final positive vowels of Korean verb "ㅏ, ㅗ + ending 아" and "negative vowels + ending 어". In fact, although /먹어/-〉*[머가] is not realized, /잡아/-〉[자버] is realized in modern Korean. That is, it has no variation in "negative vowels+negative vowels", but it has variation into "positive vowels+positive vowels" in "posive vowels+negative vowels". We intend to call this negative vowelization. The purpose of this paper is to propose that this negative vowelization could be one of characteristics in Chungnam dialect. We cannot see the negative vowelization in conjugation of "negative vowels+negative vowels". It shows us itself the realization of negative vowel forms in the formation like this: negative vowels + C]vst+어, such as "넘+어-〉[너머], 뜯+어-〉[뜨더]". The cases of ‘끄+어→[꺼], 서+어→[서], 가리+어→[개려]’ are under the circumstance of hiatus avoidance. There is no variation of negative vowel, only deletion and gliding are existed. In this paper, ‘아→어’ is negative vowelization. In "ending positive vowel + ending positive vowel" structure, "아’ changes to "어’. However, "가+아서→[가서], 빻+아→[빠:]’ is a deletion from hiatus avoidance phenomena. It turns out that hiatus avoidance is prior to negative vowelization. In case that final sound is a sonorant consonant as ‘갈+아→[가러], 말+아서→[마러서], 감+아→[가머], 많+아→[마너], 앓+았지→[아?찌]’, we can see negative vowelization like "아→어". At the same time, even in case that final sound is a obstruent like ‘옭+아서→[올거서], 솎+아서→[소꺼서], 맞+아→[마저], 쫓+아→[쪼처]’, vowelization is shown. This" 아-->어’ is very negative vowelization. Then, what is a mechanism of negative vowelization? Because bac k·low-vowel "/a/" is changed to back·middle-vowel "/?/", it could be named as a vowel rising in Korean vowel system. But, "아→어’ is not the Vowel rising in this case. According to Kim Jeong-tae(2003:57), vowel rising is a unconditional alternation which is not affected by adjacent sound. 아→어’ as a negative vowelization is a conditional alternation, because of stem positive vowel and word-final consonant, circumstance of ‘V+C+_____’. That is the reason we can say that ‘아→어’ negative vowelization is one of characteristics in Chungnam dialect, due to vowel rising of common pronunciation tendency in Korean. This paper analysed the only utterances of the old in rural area. Because generational and individual differences are existed in actual language use, negative vowelization is optionally applied to speakers of modern Korean.
A procedure for preparing cross-sectional specimens for transmission electron microscopy(TEM)by focused ion beam(FIB)milling of specific regions of semiconductor devices is outlined. This technique enables TEM specimens to be pripared at precisely preselected area. In-situ #W thin film deposition on the top surface of desired site is complementally used to secure the TEM specimens to be less wedge shaped, which is main shortcoming of previous FIB-assisted TEM sample preparation technique. This technique is quite useful for the TEM sample priparation for fault finding and the characterization of fabrication process associated with submicron contact technologies.
In head and neck reconstruction, microsurgeons are faced with various demands, such as thin resurfacing, or three-dimensional reconstruction, and therefore, conventional flap as well as perforator flaps are all useful for the functional and aesthetic reconstruction successfully. Among perforator flaps, the pros and cons of anterolateral thigh perforator flap(ALTp) and thoracodorsal perforator flap(TAp) is compared and selected depending on the surgeon's preference, recipient site condition or patient status. Both flaps can be elevated in a chimeric pattern by combining different aspects of tissue components. Customized or tailored reconstruction as well as 3 dimensional reconstructions are all available with perforator flaps and it is useful in head and neck reconstruction. The most outstanding update in head and neck reconstruction is the perforator based island flap (PBIF) compared to conventional flaps. The conventional local flap has evolved on behalf of the perforator concept and its design becomes more flexible and freestyle with less limitations. Actually, random pattern flap is now a misnomer and most conventional local flaps turn into PBIFs. Finally we can say all conventional donor site becomes universal, depending on the surgeons' preference or idea. Moreover, there is no more "flap of choice" and postoperative results are quite variable by surgeons' ability. Operative procedures and plans are very flexible to freestyle flap. With all these advantages, surgeons should be armed with both conventional and perforator concepts for solving any defects or problems.