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Control degree and property changes of dissolved organic matter (DOM) were conducted by coagulation of chemical treatment for 2 sewage treatment plants with different technical methods. As the result, SUVA value of the second treated water (supernatant of the second settling pond after biological treatment) was increased and DOC was reduced in comparison with supplied raw water. And, SUVA value and DOC were reduced by coagulation after coagulation treatment of the second treated water. Properties of dissolved organic matter for 2 sewage treatment plants's DOC were divided. As the result, there was lots of hydrophilic component with hydrophilicity in case of plant A. In case of the second treated water, Plant A showed fulvic acid with little molecular weight was reduced among the hydrophobic component with hydrophobicity, but numic acide with lots of molecular weight was increased. However, in case of plant B, both fulvic acid with little molecular weight and humic acid with lots of molecular weight were increased among the hydrophobic components with hydrophilicity. Before the operation of phosphorus facility, properties of dissolved organic matter after biodegradation with effluent water showed hydrophilic components were reduced and hydrophobic components were increased. However, after coagulation treatment of the second treated water, hydrophilic components and hydrophobic components were outstandingly decreased or increased. During the biodegradation after coagulation treatment, hydrophilic components were significantly decreased and hydrophobic components were increased.
Today's modern engines are designed for higher Power and Engine speed, thus optimized concerning the dimensions of engine bearings in terms of low friction and sufficient bearing oil pressure. Oil aeration is the process by which air is circulated through, mixed with or dissolved in a liquid or substance. Oil aeration measuring methods are only capable to determine the share of dissolved (free) gas in the Common-Rail Direct Injection Diesel Engine Oil(Lubricant). The effects of oil Aeration on engine drive causes malfunctions of several components. The high oil aeration can cause hydraulic lash adjuster malfunction and connecting rod bearing failure. A successful optimization of the oil circulation concerning the oil aeration presupposes a safe and reproducible measuring procedure. This paper results of recent research and development work concerning the occurrence of oil aeration within the lubricant system of New Development Engine.
This paper is Analysis of LOC Contribution and Reduction of LOC in a Common-rail Direct Injection Diesel Engine. The determination of lube oil consumption in a modern combustion engine is extremely important, as strict regulations call for reduction of hazardous exhaust emissions. The focus of Engine research and development is on Reducing the LOC. but The influence of LOC is To much parameter. The study was done to reval the trend of LOC with Bore Honing Quality, Piston ring modification and Compounding of Piston-Piston ring. It is a following experiment to analysis of LOC Contribution, 1. Influence of LOC by Engine running Effect, 2. Influence of LOC by Engine running Condition, 3. Influence of LOC by Cylinder Bore Honing Quality, 4. Influence of LOC by Piston ringpack compounding, 5. Influence of LOC by Piston ring modification This study will show Test result to possibilities for the optimal design and Automotive part.
For the HSDI Diesel engine, the piston ring compounding test was carried out in order to reduce the Lube Oil consumption and Blow-by, where two type of 1st ring and type 2nd ring.<br/> In Engine test results, Got comparative advantage result an LOC and Blow-by on Case "D". As a result, only one variant for each piston and ring is too small number to get the factors which are related to the LOC and blow-by. Therefore, more Test and analysis are required for finding out them.
This paper is Experimental Study on Reduction of Oil Carryover in Diesel Breather system. The Influence of design factor is demonstrated and the understanding of correlation between oil carryover and blow-by. When an engine is running, blow-by gases flow through the unavoidable clearance gaps between the pistons and the cylinder wall into the crankcase. If The Blow-by isn't vented, this case many bad effects such as LOC, corrosion by that and crank case explosion by rising pressure. Current emissions legislation demands that blow by gases are returned to the air intake system. But Oil carryover into blow by gases is pollution of Intake system. So Oil carryover depend on the quantity of Blow by. It is a following experiment to reduce oil carryover method, 1. Oil carryover by Crank case pressure control in rated power, 2. Baffle plate tuning for reduction of oil carryover in Rated power, 3. Baffle plate and PCV system compounding Test, 4. Influence of oil carry over in Max. blow-by, and 5. General Durability Test. The Experimental Result is following, Optimization of Crank case pressure, Select of Oil separator, and the select of Baffle plate.<br/> This study will show experimental result to possibilities for the optimal design and Automotive part. And the experimental results presented optimization of diesel crankcase ventilation system.
The current study examined speech rate and its variance in spontaneous Seoul Korean speech. The current study focused on factors affecting the variance of speech rate such as utterance length, individual speakers, and gender. The results revealed that, first, utterance length has a significant influence on speech rate. Longer utterances were spoken at a faster rate. Second, regarding the effect of utterance length, individual speakers differed significantly in their speaking rate. The variation between speakers and within speakers tended to increase as utterance length increases. Third, there were speakers’ gender differences, indicating that males produced considerably faster speaking rate than females. Additionally, the current study implied that non-linguistic factors in spontaneous speech can affect the variance of speakers’ speaking rate.
This paper is the Experimental study of Cylinder bore honing application parameter having been influenced on oil consumption in a common-rail direct injection diesel engines because a oil consumption become more and more important factor in engine development due to the extremely strict emission requirements. Both honing type (Brush honing being used meantime and Plateu honing to be applied newly) are used in this test. The plateu honing technology is the best application to reduce a continuous oil consumption as well as Initial oil consumption. This paper will show how much improvement will be obtained through the new plateu honing technology. This paper will show experimental result to possibilities for the optimal design and Automotive part. And the experimental
현실과 예술의 경계로서의 프레임은 각각의 매체의 특성에 따라 고유의 의미작용을 한다. 그림책은 회화처럼 정지된 이미지들이 영화나 만화처럼 시퀀스로 구성되어, 글과 그림으로 이중 서술되는 서사적 매체이다. 그림책 프레임이 판형, 양면 펼침, 페이지, 내적프레임 등 다양한 프레임으로 구성되어 있다는 점, 그리고 대상으로서의 프레임조차 크기, 비례, 형태가 변할 수 있고 그에 따라 서로 다른 의미작용을 할 수 있다는 특성은 그림책을 다른 매체와 구별시키는 그림책 프레임의 외향적 특성이라 할 것이다. 특히 그림책에서 각각의 프레임들은 고정된 역할, 고정된 형태, 고정된 의미작용을 하지 않는다. 같은 종류, 같은 형태의 프레임 일지라도 다르게 의미작용 하며, 프레임의 선택, 프레임 간의 조합, 배치, 변화(크기, 형태 등)를 통해 서로 또 다른 의미작용을 창출한다. 같은 종류의 프레임(이를테면 내적프레임)이 사용되어도 각각의 스토리와 만나 전혀 다른 의미작용을 하고, 프레임의 조합과 배치에 따라서, 이를테면 선형적인 배치는 시간의 흐름을, 중첩된 배치는 여러 차원을 동시에 표현하는 등의 전혀 다른 의미작용을 하는 조형기호가 된다. 따라서 그림책의 매체적 특성에 따른 프레임은 회화나 영화에서의 프레임 의미작용과 다른 독자적 의미작용을 하는 조형적 기호이자 그림책을 끝없이 변화하는 유기체로 만드는 중요한 그림책의 조형 언어이다. Frame, the boundary between life and art, has own signification depending on what kind of media is based. Picturebook, a dual narration system media, word and image, is a narrative text composed no-movement images like paintings and pictures and constructed with sequence movement images like movie and cartoon. It is one of the important feature picturebook has that there are different type of frames such as size & shape of book, spread, pages and inner frame. The frames as an object won`t be even fixed. It can be resized, reshaped even in the same book. Futhermore they are able to assemble and be changeable. Especially, frames in picturebook are not fixed in role, shape, and signification. It is an organic formative sign by selection of frame, assemble, layout and changes in size or shape and causes variety of signification with their own story. Inner frame, for example depending on their layout in leaner or un-leaner way represents time or dimension even they are in same type of frame. Therefore, Frames play a role of formative sign to generate signification with the feature of picturebook and make picturebook differ from painting or movie does. And there is no doubt that frame as the language of art can build picturebook as an organic system which can be changed more than you can imagine.