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Cross-border investment (FDI) rapidly increased in the 1990s, and their contribution to economies around the world is of increasing significance. The significance of such FDI and its contribution to economic growth has already been pointed out in papers submitted by the WTO member country at the time of the launch of the Working Group on Trade and Investment in 1997. On the other hand, with this sharp growth in FDI, many investors concerns about various problems over investment issues on the part of investors, and request on urgent solution to these issues. Serious concerns are, for example, the lack of transparency and the frequent changes of investment-related rules. Providing a high level of transparency is crucial to creating a favorable climate for foreign investment as it enables foreign investors to make decisions under minimum uncertainty and reduced risk. Most bilateral investment treaties (BITs) do not explicitly address the issue of transparency. Compared to bilateral investment treaties, multilateral investment rules may provide a unified set of regulations regarding the transparency of investment regimes. However, the adoption by OECD countries of the two Codes of Liberalization helped gradually to establish relevant liberalization principles and a model of effective machinery for their implementation, but even at the OECD, efforts at comprehensive investment protection failed. Moreover, Yet FDI has no multilateral rules while foreign trade has GATT (WTO) rules. The Uruguay Round agreements include numerous provisions concerning investment issues as well as dispute settlement procedures. The TRIMs, GATS expand the GATT/WTO framework to include a variety of foreign direct investment issues. The WTO Agreements, especially, TRIMs Agreement and GATS, SCM Agreement are important for both investment issues and dispute settlement procedures because it establishes the umbrella institutional framework, policy process, and administrative structure for all FDI matters. But the TRIMs Agreement is designed to promote liberalization of international trade rather than international investment. Although intended to bring trade-related investment measures within the GATT, the Agreement merely reiterates what was already in GATT, providing no new protections or remedies for foreign investors. On the other hand, the GATS Agreement includes foreign direct investment within the scope of its application by defining trade in services to include, inter alia, “the supply of a service by a service supplier of one Member, through commercial presence in the territory of any other Member.” The GATS includes provisions concerning notification, transparency, most favored nation treatment, national treatment, market access, subsidies, and foreign exchange restrictions on capital account and current account transactions. However, GATS provides little meaningful protection for foreign investment. Thus, the spillover from that framework into the area of FDI, through the GATS and the agreement on TRIMs, has rendered more evident the need for a corresponding effort with respect to FDI. The future issue of multilateral investment agreement under the WTO regime, is important. But the future of a real multilateral agreement on investment is uncertain because such an agreement, in large part, depends on the political will of member countries. Developing countries still have concerns over restrictive MNE practices and diminished control over national development. However, developing country attitudes toward FDI have changed since the end of the Uruguay Round and many now actively pursue direct investment. Thus, Developed country negotiators should make a sincere effort to understand and incorporate the concerns of developing countries into WTO investment discussions rather than rushing to secure an investment agreement or simply trying to impose their MAI “high standards” on developing countries. Only through developed-developing country cooperation and a
본 연구의 목적은 학령전 아동의 어머니의 스마트폰 중독경향성과 자녀의 스마트폰 사용과의 관계 및 매개변인과의 구조를 탐색하는 것이다. 연구대상은 서울시와 수도권의 어린이집과 유치원 및 개인 의원을 방문하는 학령전 아동의 어머니 543명과 그 자녀인 학령전 아동이며, 경로분석을 통해 학령전 아동의 어머니와 그 자녀의 스마트폰 사용 및 매개변수의 인과구조모형을 검증하였다. 즉, 독립변인으로 어머니의 스마트폰 중독경향성을, 종속 변인으로 학령전 아동의 스마트폰 과몰입으로 설정하였고, 영향을 미치는 과정에서 부부갈등과 어머니-자녀 의사소통의 매개 효과를 살펴보았다. 본 연구모형에 대한 직접효과를 살펴본 결과, 어머니의 스마트폰 중독경향성이 학령전 아동의 스마트폰 과몰입과 부부갈등에 정적영향과 어머니-자녀 의사소통에 부적영향을 미치는 것으로 나타났다. 또한 학령전 아동의 스마트폰 과몰입에 대해 부부갈등은 정적으로, 어머니-자녀 의사소통은 부적으로 영향을 미쳐 매개효과를 갖는 것으로 드러났다. 이러한 연구 결과는 학령전 아동의 스마트폰 과몰입에 어머니의 스마트폰 중독경향성, 부부갈등 및 어머니-자녀 의사소통이 영향을 미치는 변인임을 시사하고, 어머니의 스마트폰 중독경향성이 부부갈등 및 어머니-자녀 의사소통에 영향을 줄 수 있는 변인임을 짐작할 수 있었다. 이러한 연구 결과를 토대로 본 연구의 시사점과 제한점에 관하여 논의하였다. The purpose of this study was to investigate the structural relationships among smartphone addiction tendency of mother, smartphone overindulgence of preschool children and mediating variables such as marital conflicts and mother-child communication. Five hundred and forty three preschooler's mother residing in Seoul city or the metropolitan area of Seoul city were used for data analysis. The significance of the mediating effect of the structural model was verified by using the structural equation analysis. The results of this study are as follows: First, correlation analyses showed that the smartphone addiction tendency of mother and the smartphone overindulgence of preschool children had stastically significant positive correlations with one another. Second, on the one hand the mother's smartphone addiction tendency and the marital conflicts variable demonstrated the significant positive correlations with one another, on the other hand statistically negative correlations showed between the mother's smartphone addiction tendency and the mother-child communication with each other. Meanwhile, it was found that the marital conflicts and mother-child communication variables partially mediated the relationships between the mother's smartphone addiction tendency and the smartphone overindulgence of preschool children at the statistically significant level. Through this study, it was possible to identify the causes of the smartphone overindulgence of preschool children. Therefore it is necessary to find the desirable role of mother to prevent smartphone overindulgence of preschool children. Also It suggest a need for variety further research which targets preschool children and sound attitude of maternal using smartphone.