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The design of airfoil had practiced by repeat tests in its first stage, though an airfoil has as been designed based on simulations according to techniques of computational fluid dynamics. Here, using of traditional optimization is unsuitable because a state of flux is hypersensitive to the shape of airfoil. Therefore the paper optimized the shape of airfoil in transonic region using a genetic algorithm (GA). Response surfaces are based on back propagation neural network (BPN) and regression model. Training data of BPN and regression model were obtained by computational fluid dynamic analysis using CFD-ACE, and each analysis has been designed by design of experiments.
The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of 24 weeks of muscle strength exercise ‘Growing Stronger’ on the change of body composition, blood lipids and human growth hormone of elderly women. To achieve this purpose, the total subjects of 21 including 11 of the exercise group and 10 of the control group aged over 65 were participated in this study. The exercise group members were performed ‘Growing Stronger’ three times a week for about an hour to an hour and a half for 24 weeks. All participants were measured their body composition, blood lipids and human growth hormone before and after implementing the exercise program in order to compare the interaction between the group and time. The results of this study were as follows; For the changes of body composition after muscle strength exercise, each of T+S, BD, %fat, %LBM shows significant difference between times(p<.001), between groups(p<.01), and in group × time(p<.001). In case of FAT, there was no significant difference between groups but were significant difference between times(p<.01) and in group × time(p<.001). In case of LBM, there was significant difference between groups(p<.01) and between times(p<.001), but there was no interaction effect in group × time. For Fat/H, there were significant difference between times(p<.01) and in group × time(p<.001). For LBM/H, there were significant difference between groups(p<.01), and between times(p<.001). For the changes of blood lipids and HGH, there were no significant difference between groups, between times, and in group × time for TC, TG, HGH. In case of LDL-C and HDLC, there were significant difference between groups(p<.05) and significant difference between times(p<.05), respectively. Muscle strength exercise ‘Growing Stronger’ which was performed in this study have a positive effect for the elderly women. It will recover weaken muscle strength from aging of fragile elderly people. So it will improve ability for the physical activity.