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Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common airway disease that has considerable impact on disease burdens and mortality rates. A large number of articles on COPD are published within the last few years. Many aspects on COPD ranging from risk factors to management have continued to be fertile fields of investigation. This review summarizes 6 clinical articles with regards to the risk factors, phenotype, assessment, exacerbation, management and prognosis of patients with COPD which were being published last year in major medical journals.
Background: Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) are common complications after anesthesia and surgery. This study was designed to compare the effects of palonosetron and ondansetron in preventing PONV in high-risk patients receiving intravenous opioid-based patient-controlled analgesia (IV-PCA) after gynecological laparoscopic surgery. Methods: One hundred non-smoking female patients scheduled for gynecological laparoscopic surgery were randomly assigned into the palonosetron group (n = 50) or the ondansetron group (n = 50). Palonosetron 0.075 mg was injected as a bolus in the palonosetron group. Ondansetron 8 mg was injected as a bolus and 16 mg was added to the IV-PCA in the ondansetron group. The incidences of nausea, vomiting and side effects was recorded at 2 h, 24 h, 48 h and 72 h, postoperatively. Results: There were no significant differences between the groups in the incidence of PONV during 72 h after operation. However, the incidence of vomiting was lower in the palonosetron group than in the ondansetron group (18% vs. 4%, P = 0.025). No differences were observed in use of antiemetics and the side effects between the groups. Conclusions: The effects of palonosetron and ondansetron in preventing PONV were similar in high-risk patients undergoing gynecological laparoscopic surgery and receiving opioid-based IV-PCA.
Database management systems are now used in almost every organization to maintain and utilize important collections of information. Relational DBNSs have a firm theoretical base. However, it lacks important features needed for representing certain critical aspects of an entity. One alternatives to remedy this problem is to adopt the object-oriented approach to the data model development process. In this paper, we tried to show the advantages of object-oriented data model design process for the development of extended relational database schema needed for the integrated plant information system at H. Heavy Industry Co.
In the 21st century, we will face strong market forces by Commerce At Light Speed/Electronic Commerce (CALS/EC) and mounting competition. Corporations can no longer manager along historical tracks. Companies are discovering that old solutions do not work with news problems. The industry parameters have changed, and so have the risk with CALS. The shoes manufacturing industry (SMI) has the same problems as the other industries. In order to change SMI to the knowledge-based industry with CALS, this paper proposes a conceptual design for CALS of SMI, which includes the goal, system structure, function design of subsystems and the required infrastructure.
Fatigue crack propagation life of weld toe crack through residual stress field was estimated with Elber's crack concept. Propagation of weld toe crack is heavily influenced by residual stress caused by welding process, so it is essential to take into account the effect of residual stress on the propagation life of weld toe crack. Fatigue crack at transverse and longitudinal weld toe was studied respectively, which represent typical weld joint in ship structure. Numerical and experimental studies are performed for both cases. Residual stress near weldment was estimated through nonlinear thermo-elasto-plastic finite element method, and residual stress intensity factor with Glinka's weight function method. Effective stress intensity factor was calculated with Newman-Forman-de Koning-Henriksen equation which is based on Dugdale strip yield model in estimating crack closure level U at different stress ratio. Calculated crack propagation life coincided well with experimental results.
Landscaping on artificial ground is currently served as a means to imposing a greenery benefit on high-density and high-rise apartment sites. It functions as a sub-hierarchy in apartment planning such as ornamental element from the past. Major parking space tends to be allocated on the basement area in response to the required parking regulation. Therefore, competitive relatioinship between the parking and greenery space I limited outdoor of apartments leads to the development planning strategy and technology of artificial ground. This study aims at evaluating landscape planning on artificial ground of apartment complex through several approaches such as site survey, plan drawing analysis, and interview with related field experts. 15 survey apartment sites including Bundang Model, Shindaebang-dong, Pyoungchon Hyundai Apartments have been selected for conducting the research. Main results of this study are summarized below : First, scattering allocation of artificial ground between apartment building units is a dominant plan layout type among the survey sites. Even though unifying allocation type has an advantage to maximize underground parking space, it has a difficulty in maintaining proper soil ground base for nurturing plants. Therefore, underground parking space should be planned by unifying allocation type placed separately from apartment units. This plan type can provide a balanced planting between soil and artificial ground on surface level. Second, It is strongly recommended to integrate the whole planting base which involves architectural structure, drainage, and water proofing above the planting design. When considering that process as a professional subject dealing with natural material such as trees and shrubs, those tasks should be directed by landscape architectural divison and landscape architect. And planting area for artificial ground has to be specified in initial phase of architectural design. This step provides an opportunity to make a proper decision on structural load, drainage, and water proof design as an integrated part of the management.
Background: High-risk (HR) human papillomavirus (HPV) is found in a subset of head and neck (HN) squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). For oropharyngeal SCCs, HR HPV positivity is known to be associated with good prognosis, and a separate staging system for HPV-associated carcinomas using p16 immunohistochemistry (IHC) as a surrogate test has been adopted in the 8th American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system. We examined the HR HPV status and the genotype distribution in five HN subsites. Methods: Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sections were used for p16 IHC and DNA extraction. HPV DNA detection and genotyping were done employing either a DNA chip-based or real-time polymerase chain reaction–based method. Results: During 2011–2019, a total of 466 SCCs were tested for HPV DNA with 34.1% positivity for HR HPV. Among HN subsites, the oropharynx showed the highest HR HPV prevalence (149/205, 75.1%), followed by the sinonasal tract (3/14, 21.4%), larynx (5/43, 11.6%), hypopharynx (1/38, 2.6%), and oral cavity (1/166, 0.6%). The most common HPV genotype was HPV16 (84.3%) followed by HPV35 (6.9%) and HPV33 (4.4%). Compared with HR HPV status, the sensitivity and specificity of p16 IHC were 98.6% and 94.3% for the oropharynx, and 99.2% and 93.8% for the tonsil, respectively. Conclusions: Using a Korean dataset, we confirmed that HR HPV is most frequently detected in oropharyngeal SCCs. p16 positivity showed a good concordance with HR HPV DNA for oropharyngeal and especially tonsillar carcinomas. The use of p16 IHC may further be extended to predict HR HPV positivity in sinonasal tract SCCs.