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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of leachable components (unreacted monomer, additives, linear polymerization byproducts) from a hybrid composite resin polymerized with various irradiation systems in comparison to unpolymerized composite resin, to measure the degree of polymerization. Disk specimen (2 ㎜ in thickness × 6 ㎜ in diameter) was polymerized with a plasma arc [Apollo 95E; 1370 ㎽/㎠] for 3 sec (P3) and 6 sec (P6), a halogen lamp [VIP; 400㎽/㎠] and a light emitting diode [LED; 400 ㎽/㎠] for 20 sec (H2 and L2) and 40 sec (H4 and L4). Polymerized specimens were weighed and then immersed in 99% ethanol for 3 days at shaking water bath (150 rpm, 37 ℃). As a reference, specimen of unpolymerized composite resin was eluted with ethanol for 20 min. Eluates were analyzed by Gas chromatography/Mass spectroscopy. Degree of polymerization was measured immediately after curing using a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. All compound detected in the unpolymerized composite was identified in the polymerized composite, but two kinds of polymerization byproducts with linearity were found in the specimens polymerized regardless of polymerization systems. Composite resin polymerized with P3 and P6 showed larger amount of unreacted monomers, additives, and polymerization byproducts than those with H4 and L4. Amount of leachable components from a hybrid composite resin was different despite of similar degree of polymerization.
Descriptive rather than analytic in its approach, this article attempts to explore Taewon Koh's immigrant autobiography, The Bitter Fruit of Kom-Pawi (1959), in terms of what has been called “microhistory” a branch of the study of history since the 1970s. Her autobiography is different in some significant ways from other Korean immigrant autobiographies written by women. First of all, Koh's book is the study of a small village, “Kom-Pawi,” located in the remote mountainside region of Kuwolsan in Hwanghae Province. Second, The Bitter Fruit can be seen as a microhistory in that it looks at an individual of minor importance in this case, Koh. On the surface, it is a mere memoir of a nameless Korean immigrant in America, who became separated from her children when the Korean War broke out and then, after desperate efforts, reunited with her children. A close reading of it, however, reveals much more about Korean society in particular and the geopolitical correlates of power in world politics in general. Third, Koh's book seeks to blur the barriers between autobiography and fiction just as microhistoricists, or New Historists, have blurred history and literature. In conclusion, The Bitter Fruit by Taewon Koh is a significant contribution not only to Korean-American immigrant autobiographies, but to Korean-American literature as well.