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본 저자들은 1992년 3월부터 1996년 4월까지 신생아 울체성 황달의 감별진단, 특히 신생아담도폐쇄증과 신생아 간염의 감별진단에 있어 Tc-99m DISIDA 간담도주사와 경피간침생검을 시행하여 다음과 같은 결과를 얻었다. 질환별로 볼 때 전체 60예의 환아 중에서 담도패쇄증이 23예, 신생아 감염이 34예였으며 경정맥고영양법으로 인한 황달이 2예, Alagille 증후군이 1예였다. Tc-99m DISIDA 간담도주사는 60명의 환아를 대상으로 실시하였다. BA 진단에 대한 민감도와 특이도는 각각 96%와 32%로서 높은 민감도를 보인 반면 특이도는 낮게 나타났으며 전체적인 진단 정확도는 57%였다. 경피간침생검은 Tc-99m DISIDA 간담도주사를 실시한 60명의 환아중 장관내 방사능이 나타나지 않았던 38명의 환아에서 40회 실시하였는데, 경피간침생검에 BA 진단에 대한 민감도는 88%, 특이도는 96%로 모두 높았으며 전체적인 진단 정확도는 93%였다. 본 연구를 요약하면 Tc-99m DISIDA 간담도주사는 특이도 32%, 양성예측율 47%로서 Tc-99m DlSIDA 간담도주사에서 장관내 방사능이 배설이 되지 않을 때는 경피간침생검이 반드시 필요하리라 생각되며, 일단 장관내 방사능이 배출되면 BA는 배제할 수 있으리라 생각된다. 경피간침생검은 전체적인 진단율이 93%로 높으나, BA 환아에서 8주전에 경피간침생검시는 NH와 감별이 어려울 수 있으며, 또 일부 NH, 경정맥고영양법 관련 울체성 황달에서는 경피간침생검시 BA와 감별이 어려울 수 있으므로, 임상경과를 보아서 의심스러우면 재 경피간침생검을 시행하던지 타 진단법을 응용해서 참고하여야 할 것으로 생각된다. To differentiate biliary atresia from intraheaptic cholestasis, Tc-99m DlSIDA hepatobiliary scintigraphies and percutaneous needle biopsies of 60 consecutive infants were evaluated retrospectively. Twenty three patients had biliary atresia and 37 patients intraheaptic cholestasis(neonatal hepatitis 34, TPN induced jaundice 2 and Dubin-Johnson syndrome 1). All sixty patients underwent Tc-99m DlSIDA hepatobiliary scintigraphy with phenobarbital pretreatment. Of 23 patients with biliary atresia, 22 were correctly interpreted showing 96% sensitivity while of 37 patients with intraheaptic cholestasis, only 12 had intestinal excretion of radionuclide showing 32% specificity. Among the forty needle biopsies, 17 of biliary atresia and 23 of intrahepatic cholestasis, 37 were correctly interpreted as either having biliary atresia or intrahepatic cholestasis. The overall diagnostic accuracy was 93%. Of 3 misdiagnosed cases, the histologic findings of two patients with biliary atresia(aged 43 days and 54 days at the first needle biopsy) were essentially the same as those of neonatal hepatitis. Follow-up biopsies, however, showed findings consistent with biliary atresia. The third one(VLBW premie with history of 8 weeks of TPN) showed mild ductal proliferation and portal fibrosis. This was interpreted as suspicious for biliary atresia. Jaundice resolved gradually. In summary, patients who have intestinal excretion of radionuclide on Tc-99m DlSIDA hepatobiliary scintigraphy, biliary atresia can be ruled out. But the patients who do not have intestinal excretion of radionuclide should have further investigation by needle biopsy. Judicious use of Tc-99m DISIDA hepatobiliary scintigraphy and percutaneous needle biopsy can give a diagnostic accuracy of 95% or more in cases of infantile cholestasis.
A fast response analyzer for measuring carbon dioxide concentration has been developed for transient characteristic and researches tested on internal combustion engine. The analyzer uses the well known NDIR(Non-Dispersive Infrared) method with miniaturized detection system, giving a time constant of approximately 30 microsecond, and sampling module consists of capillary tube. Since the transit time and the time constant of the sampling system depend on the sampling conditions, it is necessary to investigate the characteristics of sampling system before applied to exhaust gas measurement in engine. A unique method was designed to study the influence of the diameter of transfer sample line and operating conditions of the FRNDIR on transit time and time constant. A database of transit time and time constant was built up for different measured and simulated pressure conditions. The database can be used for correcting eventual $CO_2$ concentration measurement.
Currently, approximately 90% of waste concrete is being used solely for landfills. Of the total waste concrete only about 14% is made into aggregate and recycled. Such usage is a very low-efficiency method of recycling these materials, under-utilizing an important and valuable asset. Common engineering practice has thus far failed to promote the design of structural members using recycled aggregates. Moreover, appropriate structural design standards for such materials have not been established, despite the number of domestic research studies which have been, and are being, conducted. Such practices overlook the fact that the recycling of aggregate from demolished concrete structures is both structurally and economically beneficial. In making full use of recycled concrete aggregates (RCA) it is necessary to understand its mechanical properties such as compressive, tensile and flexural strengths, and bond strength, as well as its structural performance. The main objectives of this research study are the investigation of flexural performance and the evaluation of the potential applications of RCA on concrete structures. For this, flexural tests of 12 reinforced high-strength concrete beams with RCA were performed. The current test data were examined in terms of flexural strength, along with the data from previously tested reinforced concrete beams with RCA. It is anticipated that this research will play a role of establishing the structural design standards for concrete members with RCA.
Recycled coarse aggregates (RCAs) made by construction waste can be used as concrete aggregates. Nevertheless, some studies have indicated that increasing the RCA replacement ratios of the reinforced concrete (RC) structures resulted in a decrease in failure load capacity, in strength degradation, and in severe cracking. In this study, the use of carbon fiber reinforcement polymer (CFRP) sheets and CFRP plates in RC structures was evaluated for their effect in suppressing cracking and in adding strength to the structure. Twelve specimens including five control beams were fabricated, using various recycled coarse aggregate substitution rates, to compare and analyze the CFRP material’s reinforcement effects. All specimens were fabricated with stirrups as simple beams with fixed span to effective depth ratio of 3.88 to 1 (i.e., a/d=3.88). The main variables studied in this investigation are (1) replacement level of recycled coarse aggregates (0, 15, 30 and 50%), (2) tensile reinforcement ratio (0.8, 1.27%), and (3) the incorporation of CFRP sheets and/or CFRP plates.
This study sought to explore the various meanings and roles of physical education through the physical activity programs conducted in alternative schools. To this end, a total of 3 research participants (one sports instructor and two students) were selected and data were collected through in-depth interviews, participation and observations, and education diaries for five months from March to July 2021. Data analysis used an inductive analysis method, which is often used in narrative research, in drawing six key categories based on the experiences of the research participants, and the conclusions composed of stories are as follows. First, the research participants experienced a strong first encounter with the environment and students of the alternative school, which is different from the general school. Second, at the beginning of the class, it was very confusing and disordered, but as time went on, an order was created for the class amid a disorder. Third, as time went by, the class progressed smoothly and the various educational meanings of physical activity were offered. Fourth, as various programs were conducted through classes, students discovered themselves through physical activity. Fifth, towards the end of the program, students acknowledged and empathized with the fact that physical education can be an educational method rather than a simple physical activity or play. Sixth, the physical activity program conducted at the alternative school offered new and diverse educational meanings, but it had practical limitations and improvements to be achieved.
This research aims to inquire into ethical decision making on the research activities of graduate school students majoring in physical education. In order to achieve this research purpose, the following research questions were established. First, how is the ethical sensitivity on the research activities of graduate school students majoring in physical education? Second, how is the ethical judgment on the research activities of graduate school students majoring in physical education? Third, how is the ethical decision on the research activities of graduate school students majoring in physical education? As the research method, narrative interviews and semi-structured questionnaire survey were conducted on the master"s and doctor"s course graduate school students, who were selected by purposeful sampling, of K University in Gyeonggi-do, and for the analysis on the data, the text analysis was conducted and the following results were derived. First, in the ethical sensitivity on the research activities of graduate school students majoring in physical education, the tacit cognition of research ethics, the degree course and career path direction, and the research environment and atmosphere were found. Second, in the ethical judgment on the research activities of graduate school students majoring in physical education, the reliance on the authority, locus of control on researches, the spontaneous will to the ethical researcher, leaming according to gradual experiences, and check and control among colleagues were found. Third, in the ethical decision on the research activities of graduate school students majoring in physical education, the subjective intuition, the realistic compromise with results, and the hierarchical decision were found.