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These investigations were performed to determine the causes of the reproductive disorders of the sows in a pig farm which was located at the distance 36m away from the detonation spot. The reproductive problems of the sows such as abortion and infertility occurred after consecutive detonation and use of heavy equipments to build 6 piers of the bridge for the expressway between Jinju and Taeieon during the period from July 1997 to October 1998. 1. The management condition of the farm, microorganism in the feed, inbreeding, hematological conditions, and viral agent causing abortion were not proved as the factors of the occurrence of abortion and infertility in the pig farm. 2. Theoretical concussion values according to the average amount of explosive per detonation were 1.16 kine for minimum amount (3.6 kg) and 3.45 kine for maximum amount(12.5 kg) of explosive, and the theoretical sound values were accordingly 92.29 decibel for minimum amount and 101.76 decibel for maximum amount of explosive, respectively, in the case of 36m distance between the detonation spot and pig farm. The frequency of detonation in a day was 7 times with interval of 15 minutes. 3. The occurence of infertility in the farm was 57.3% during the period of construction from July 1997 to August 1998. 4. In comparison of body weight of piglets between the damaged and not damaged farms, growth of piglets at the damaged farm was shown to be delayed over 30 days than those of not-damaged farm. In conclusion, abortion of 40 sows, delivery of whole still births of 22 sows, and infertility of 122 sows in the pig farm were assumed to be caused by the concussion or sound stress after consecutive detonation and use of heavy equipments.
Purpose: This study aimed to develop a pre-hospital subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) prediction tool by analyzing the extant predictive factors of patients with non-traumatic SAH who visited the hospital through the 119 emergency medical services. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed pre-hospital care reports (PCRs) and electronic medical records (EMRs) of 103 patients with non-traumatic SAH who were transported to the emergency department of two national hospitals via the 119 emergency medical service from January 1, 2017 to December 31, 2020. Variables required to apply the Ottawa SAH Rule and EMERALD SAH Rule, which are early prediction tools for SAH, were extracted and applied. Results: The most common symptoms-which were found in 94.1% and 97.0% of all patients according to PCRs and EMRs, respectively-appeared in the following order: headache, altered state of consciousness, and nausea/vomiting. When the variables used for the EMERALD Rule, namely systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and blood sugar test (BST), were applied, the sensitivities of EMR and PCRs were 99.9% and 92.2%, respectively. Conclusion: For the timely prediction of SAH at the pre-hospital phase, patient age and symptoms should be assessed, and SBP, DBP, and BST should be measured to transport the patient to an appropriate hospital.