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Sedative and antiemetic effect of hydroxyzine as a premedicant were studied and results were compared with a placebo and Talwin. Two hundred and fourty patients were evaluated. These patients were divided into 6 groups. There were fourty patients in each group. Group 1: Hydroxyzine 50mg. Group 2: Hydroxyzine 100mg. Group 3: Placebo. Group 4: Talwin 20mg. Group 5: Hydroxyzine 5pmg plus Talwie 20mg. Group 6: Hydroxyzine 100mg plus Talwin 20mg. The results were as follows; 1) Satisfactory sedation was ovtained in 75% with group I, in 92.5% with group 2, in 30% with group 3, in 40% with group 4, in 82. 5% With group 5, and in 97. 5% with group 6. Better results were obtained with hydroxyzine plus Talwin group than hydroxyzine anly. 2) The incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting in recovery room, 7. 5% wlth group 7. 5 % with group 3, 20% with group 4, 5%. with group 5. There was no case of nausea and vomiting in group 2 and group 6. We obtained a significant difference in antiemetic effect between Talwin only and the Talwin plus hydroxyzine group. 3) There was no adverse change on vital signs in all cases.
Upon the establishment of the Joseon dynasty, Neo-Confucianism became the dominant ideology of the new state. Accordingly Buddhism was necessarily to be rejected in this new dynastic society. Nevertheless Buddhism was still rooted on the hearts of most people although it had already lost its old glory of the Koryo dynasty. Since mid-17th century, the theory of Neo-cofucianism was gradually discredited by some Confucianist. The emptyness of the theory of Neo-Confucianism was reconsidered toward inferiority and the realistic and pragmatic opinions including social reforms wer represented by those Confucianists. In Korean History this kind of intellectual movement is called 'Shilhak' moement (Shilhak means somewhat pragmatic and realistic studies). It is generally accepted that Yoo Hyeong Won, Lee Ik and Jeong Yak Yong are representative of Confucianists of Shilhak scholars. Then how did the Confucianists view the Buddhism of the age? 1) Yoo Hyeong Won(1622-73) is regarded as the first Confucianist contributing to systematic study on Shilhak. He crtiicized the idle, dissipated life of the Buddhists and deny necessity of their existence. This kind of thought being traditional, we cannot find in his thought anything new to help us understand Buddhism. 2) Lee Ik(168`1-1763) succeedee Yoo HyeongWon in his study and established a Shilhak school. He also criticized corruption of the Buddhists but several sympathetic factors on Buddhism were presentedby him. He had once stayed in Buddhistic temples and knew by experience the ascetic disctpline of Buddhism and the Buddhists' lives. Though a Confucianist, he reprehended the uniformity of tht Confuciansts' academic circle and regarded more bureaucratized aspect of the Confucianism as inferior to that of Buddhism. 3) Jeong Yak Yong(1762-1836) is famous for his completion of the Shilhak, He came to contact with Buddhism through the exile life at Kanjin in Jeon-Ra-Do where he kept cmopany with many Buddhists. He got spiritual consolation from the Buddhists and he also gave them the knowledge of Confucianism. he especially, achieved with an effore the great writings of the Dai-Dun-Sa-Ji and the Man-Deok-Sa-Ji which are important documents to study history of Korean Buddhism. Jeong Yak Yong is understood as a representative scholar who lived in particular academic territory between Confucianism and Buddhism.
We experienced 450 cases of anesthesia for the operation of cleft lip and cleft palate. The observed results were as follows. 1) Ancsthetics for the operation of cleft lip were 200 cases(44.4%), cleft palate were 248 cases(55.1%), naso-ocular fistula correction and oro-ocular correction was 1 case each. 2) Sex distribution was 298 males(66.2%) and 152 females(33.8%). 3) 292 cases(66%) were under 20kg of body weight. 4) The techniques of anesthesia were NRB with Jackson-Rees' modification in 297 casea (66%) and the semiclosed circle absorption system in 153 eases(34%). 5) The main anesthetics were halothane in 431 cases(95.8%) and Valium-Dmerol in 19 cases (0. 42%) 6) The mean blood loss in palatoplasty was 6.4 ml per kg of body weight but it was 10. 7 ml per kg in the 5~10 kg of body weight group, 9. 6 ml per kg in the 10-20 kg of body weight group, and 8. 5 ml per kg in the 20~30 kg of body weight group. 66 cases (14.7%) received blood transfusion. 7) Familial incidence was found in 4.7% (21 cases). 8) Incidence of cleft lip combined with cleft palate was 42.7%(192 csses among 450 cases), and 154 cases(51.7%) were males and 88 cases(25%) were females. 9) The most common type of cleft lip was incomplete left cleft lip(30%), and of cleft palate was complete median cleft palate(52%). 10) lntraoperative anesthetic complication ocurred in 8 cases(1.8%).
Si-Seop Kim(金時習, 1435-1493) was a scholar of high intelligence who, in Korean history, made great achievements in Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism and literature. His philosophical thoughts have still been regarded Confucianistic, although most of his life was Buddhistic. In this study, much attention was paid to his intellectual plane as a Buddhist. He advocated Buddhism in his poetry and articles. In his practical and realistic interpretation of Buddhistic thoughts, he pointed out the anti-Buddhists' prejudices on Buddhism. Besides, by proclaiming that Buddhism was not incompatible with Confucianism, he laid the theoretical foundation for the existence of Buddhism. It is believed that his assertions helped people understand Buddhism in the society under the control of Confucianism. Needless to say, there were similar assertions before and after him, but the difference of his thoughts from those of other Buddhist monks probably lit up his position prominently in the history of Korean Buddhistic thoughts. The difference was that he was respected by many Confucians and his prose and poetry was popular among many intellectual readers of those days. He left a lot of writings on Buddhism and interpreted the Buddhist Scripture from the view point of Zen Buddhism. In this way he tried to harmonize the Zen Buddhism with the non-Zen Buddhism.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the contents and conditions of elementary teacher's profession, and is to analyze the status quo of elementary teacher training schools in terms of prior basis, and to suggest the alternatives for enchancing profession in elementary teacher education. The content of elementary teacher's profession are: childrens' learning, childrens' guidance, classroom management and education services. Several aspects of enhancing profession in elementary education are suggested (1) Specific educational objectives shoud be presented and established which reflect the specialities or professionals of teachers university. (2) The curriculum of teachers university shoud he constructed toward the reinforcing ways of elementary teacher preparation. (3) The curriculum shoud be revised in order to well cope with changing educational conditions and to meet student teachers' needs in term of one's whole personality and education. (4) Faculties of teachers university should influence and help teaching-learning activities with their specialties. (5) student teaching practice should sestrengthened in the way of increasing students' ability which leads to effective field adjustment. (6) Teachers university should secure competent not professors not only who are good at subject education, but also who are experienced in the actual field. (7) Teachers university should strengthen the admission system that could pull excellent elementary teacher applicants. (8) Various admission program should be adopted considering teachers university location and regional characteristics, by that excellent students can be maintained. (9) Dramatic supporting strategies should be implemented for better teacher education performance. (10) In terms of managing quality of teacher education, evaluations of teachers university should be executed and the present teacher licencing system should be changed. In summary, elementary teachers training schools should consider and make great efforts for improvement and development for elementary teaching profession. This study has important implications for restructuring and suggesting alternatives for the profession in elementary teacher education.
A energy equation for a thin plate and surrounding fluid is derived. The equation essentially determines the relation between internal loss of thin plate, energy of acoustic radiation, and structure intensity. We attempted to use this relation to measure internal loss of thin plate. The significance of this approach is that internal loss at any point of a thin plate can be measured. The quality of this measure is dicated by the accuracy of associated measurement systems such as structure and acoustic intensity measurements. A strain gauge bridge system has been developed to measure structure intensity of thin plate. Its performance is tested by experiments.