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      • KCI등재

        레토르트 및 감마선 조사에 의한 화닭 덮밥 소스의 미생물 제어 효과 비교

        김영식,김현주,윤요한,신명곤,김천제,신미혜,이주운,Kim, Young-Sik,Kim, Hyun-Joo,Yoon, Yo-Han,Shin, Myung-Gon,Kim, Cheon-Jei,Shin, Mee-Hye,Lee, Ju-Woon 한국축산식품학회 2010 한국축산식품학회지 Vol.30 No.1

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 9시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        This study evaluated the antimicrobial effects of retort process and gamma irradiation on reduction of total bacterial populations in spicy chicken sauce, which is served on top of the steamed rice. Commercial spicy chicken sauce was treated with retort and gamma ray at 0, 1, 3, 5, and 10 kGy. Total aerobic bacterial populations were then enumerated on plate count agar and isolated bacteria from the test samples were identified using PCR analysis. Moreover, gamma ray sensitivity of identified bacteria was evaluated by $D_{10}$ values, and genotoxicity of gamma-irradiated samples was examined. Gamma irradiation at 3 kGy reduced total aerobic bacterial cell counts in spicy chicken sauce below detection limit, but total aerobic bacterial cell counts in test samples treated with retort were 2.1 log CFU/g. Identified bacteria from the samples were Bacillus subtilis, B. amyloiquefaciense, and B. pumils, and the $D_{10}$ values for B. subtilis and B. cereus were 0.39 ($R^2\;=\;0.921$) and 0.28 log CFU/g ($R^2\;=\;0.904$), respectively. The SOS chromotest showed that the gamma-irradiated spicy chicken sauce did not cause mutagenicity. These results indicate that gamma irradiation of spicy chicken sauce could be useful in ensuring microbial safety. 극한 환경에서 취식이 가능하도록 안전성 및 기호성이 확보된 덮밥 소스류 개발을 위한 기초연구로 많이 소비되고 있는 화닭 덮밥소스의 위생화를 위해 감마선 조사 기술을 적용하고 레토르트 살균과의 비교연구를 진행하였다. 화닭 덮밥 소스의 미생물 오염도 평가 결과 레토르트 비처리군은 총세균수가 4.5 log CFU/g 검출되었고 레토르트 처리군은 2.1 log CFU/g의 총 세균이 검출되었다. 반면 3 kGy의 감마선 처리군 에서는 검출한계 이하의 세균이 검출되었다. 검출된 미생물을 동정한 결과 Bacillus spp.로 확인되었으며, B. cereus 및 B. subtilis에 대한 방사선 감수성 측정 결과 각각 0.39 및 0.28 kGy로 확인되었다. SOS chromotest를 이용한 유전독성학적 안전성 평가 결과 감마선 조사에 의한 돌연변이원성은 관찰되지 않았다. 이상의 결과를 종합하여 볼 때, 화닭 덮밥 소스의 효과적인 위생화를 위하여 3 kGy의 감마선 조사처리가 레토르트 처리보다 효과적으로 미생물을 사멸하는 것으로 확인되었다.

      • KCI등재

        초내열합금분말에 의한 PTA 오버레이부의 연삭 마모 특성 연구

        김영식,최영국,임창훈,김종도,Kim, Young-Sik,Choi, Young-Gook,Lim, Chang-Hoon,Kim, Jong-Do 대한용접접합학회 2009 대한용접·접합학회지 Vol.27 No.3

        The Plasma Transferred Arc (PTA) overlay welding method is lately introduced as one of the most useful surface overlay method of the engine component. In this paper, the overlay welding on the SNCrW heat resisting alloy was conducted by the PTA overlay welding process using the super alloy powder. The characteristics of the overlay layers were investigated through the metallurgical and abrasive test. Experimental results showed that the overlay on the SNCrW heat resisting alloy surface was successfully made without hot cracking. The friction wear characteristics of the Co-base Stellite 6 overlayer were most superior. However the abrasive wear characteristics were most inferior in the Co-base Stellite 6 overlayer.

      • KCI등재

        Stereoscope를 이용한 미세종자류 한약재 외부형태 감별연구(제3보(報)) - 사원자(沙苑子)와 황기자(黃芪子), 정력자(葶藶子) -

        김영식,주영승,Kim, Young-Sik,Ju, Young-Sung 대한본초학회 2019 大韓本草學會誌 Vol.34 No.3

        Objectives : This study is to propose the identification keys based on stereoscopic examination of 8 seed herbs in 2 categories (Phyllolobobii Semen (PS) with 4 Astragali Semen (AS), and 2 Lepidii seu Descurainiae Semen (LDS) with 1 Drabae Semen (DS)) which have difficulties in discrimination with visual observation. Methods : We reviewed the description of original plants and their medicinal parts from the literature. The original plants were collected, identified, confirmed as specimens, and compared to the samples distributed in the market. The first identification was made by visual observation, and insufficient points were supplemented by stereoscopic observation. Identification criteria were set by considering morphological characteristics of authentic herbs, percentage of adulterants, and distinction between authentic herbs and adulterants. Results : The original plants of PS and AS could be distinguished by upright or lying form of stem, color of flowers, number of leaflets, and presence of hair of fruits. LDS and DS could be distinguished by leaf arrangement on stem: radical or cauline, whole plants size, leaf division, color of flowers, and shape of fruits. The herbal medicines of PS and AS could be distinguished by seed surface pattern, size, and hardness. LDS and DS could be distinguished by size, shape, viscosity when chewed, and degree of mucous layer formation when soaked in water. Conclusions : This study suggests the identification keys of original plants and herbal medicines. Especially, since fine seed herbs are difficult to distinguish by visual observation, the stereoscope should be applied to the discrimination.

      • KCI우수등재

        일부 주조작업장 공기중 분진 중금속 농도

        김영식,김규광,한홍,Kim, young-Sik,Kim, Gyu-Kwang,Han, Hong 한국환경보건학회 1992 한국환경보건학회지 Vol.18 No.1

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 9시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        A study was performed to measure the heavy metal concentrations of suspended particles in iron castings during February, 1990. The heavy metal concentrations were analyzed using patricles atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results were as fellows 1. The concentrations of suspended paticles by casting process were at furnace 4.19mg/m$^{3}$ at pouring 2.93mg/m$^{3}$ at nonferrous furnace 3.90mg/m$^{3}$, at molding 1.17mg/m$^{3}$, jung ja 2.23mg/m$^{3}$, desanding 5.42mg/m$^{3}$, sand treatment 4.82mg/m$^{3}$, finishing 1,20mg/m$^{3}$. 2. Among the total of 8 iron casting workplaces, the concentrations Fe of furnace was 0.36mg/m$^{3}$, Cu of nonferrous furnace 0.02mg/m$^{3}$, Pb of pouring 0.02mg/m$^{3}$, Cr of desanding 0.01mg/m$^{3}$ and Mn of furnace 0.03mg/m$^{3}$.

      • KCI우수등재

        패각 폐기물을 이용한 황화반응 모델에 관한 연구

        김영식,Kim Young-Sik 한국환경보건학회 2004 한국환경보건학회지 Vol.30 No.5

        In this study, lots of methods have been studing to utilize energy and decrease contaminated effluents. There has been great progress on IGCC (Integrated gasification combined cycle) to reduce thermal energy losses. The following results have been conducted from desulfurization experiments using waste shell to remove $H_{2}S$. Unreacted core model ior desulfuriration rate prediction of sorbent was indicated. These were linear relationship between time and conversion. So co-current diffusion resistance was conducted reaction rate controlling step. The sulfidation rate is likely to be controlled primarily by countercurrent diffusion through the product layer of calcium sulfide(CaS) formed. Maximum desulfurization capacity was observed at 0.631 mm for lime, oyster and hard-shelled mussel. The kinetics of the sorption of $H_{2}S$ by CaO is sensitive to the reaction temperature and particle size at $800^{\circ}C$, and the reaction rate of oyster was faster than the calcined limestone at $700^{\circ}C$.

      • 복막전이를 동반한 위암에서 광범위절제의 효과

        김영식,이상호,최경현,Kim, Young-Sik,Lee, Sang-Ho,Choi, Kyung-Hyun 대한위암학회 2001 대한위암학회지 Vol.1 No.3

        Purpose: The prognosis for gastric cancer with peritoneal seeding is very poor, and the role of surgical intervention is limited. We evaluated the effect of radical removal of primary and metastatic lesions on survival in gastric cancer with peritoneal seeding. Materials and Methods: From May 1989 to March 1999 at Kosin University Gospel Hospital, 115 patients revealed gastric cancer with peritoneal seeding but without liver or lung metastasis and without follow-up loss. The study group included 86 patients who underwent surgery for radical removal of primary gastric and metastatic peritoneal lesions. The control group included 29 patients who experienced incomplete removal of primary or metastatic lesions. Both groups received intraoperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy using mytomycin or cisplatin, and 25 patients underwent postoperative intravenous chemotherapy. Results: The median survival times in the study and the control groups were 13 months and 4 months, respectively (p<0.0001). The 1-year, 2-year, and 5-year survival rates were, respectively, $50.6\%,\;18.1\%$, and $11.3\%$ in the study group and $14.8\%,\;3.7\%$ and $0\%$ in the control group (p<0.0001). In the study group, neither postoperative intravenous chemotherapy nor microscopic invasion of the resection margin had any effect on survival, but intraoperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy and degree of peri-toneal seeding, especially the amount of peritoneal seeding, had an effect on survival. In the control group, neither intraperitoneal nor intravenous chemotherapy had any effect on survival, but resection of the primary gastric lesion improved survival. Conclusion: Radical removal of primary gastric and metastatic peritoneal lesions improved the survival rate for gastric cancer with peritoneal seeding. However, a randomized prospective study is needed to correctly evaluate the effect of intraperitoneal or intravenous chemotherapy.

      • KCI등재

        유연한 LCZ와 집합 크기를 갖는 새로운 이진 LCZ 수열 집합의 생성

        김영식,장지웅,노종선,정하봉,Kim, Young-Sik,Jang, Ji-Woong,No, Jong-Seon,Chung, Ha-Bong 한국통신학회 2007 韓國通信學會論文誌 Vol.32 No.3C

        이 논문에서는 파라미터 $(2^{n+1}-2,M,L,2)$를 갖는 새로운 낮은 상관 구역 수열을 생성한다. 이 방식에서는 자유롭게 낮은 상관 구간의 길이 L을 선택할 수 있으며, 이에 따라서 집합의 크기 M이 결정이 된다. 그리고 이 생성방식을 사용하게 되면 선택된 낮은 상관 구간의 길이 L과 집합의 크기 M이 Tang, Fan, 그리고 Matsufuji 한계를 기준으로 최적에 가까운 집합을 생성할 수가 있다. In this paper, we construct new LCZ sequence sets with parameters $(2^{n+1}-2,M,L,2)$. In this scheme, we can relatively freely choose the LCZ length L and the resulting LCZ sequence set has the size in which is nearly optimal with respect to Tang, Fan, and Matsufuji bound.

      • SCOPUSKCI등재

        고체 내부의 구조적 변화를 위한 Laser Pulse의 설계

        김영식,Kim, Young Sik 대한화학회 1995 대한화학회지 Vol.39 No.1

        주어진 시간에 금속 고체 내부의 목표 부위에 탄성에너지를 집중시킬 수 있도록 표면에 가해주는 최적의 레이저 pulse의 형태를 디자인 하는 문제에 관하여 연구하였다. 금속고체 표면에 레이저를 쪼여주면 흡수된 광에너지가 열로 바뀌어 열팽창에 의하여 종파와 횡파가 고체 내부로 전파된다. 최소의 레이저의 세기를 사용하고 다른 부위에 영향을 최소화하면서 목표 부위에 원하는 에너지를 집중시킬 수 있는 최적의 레이저 펄스의 형태를 공액 변화 방법과 반 공간 Green 함수를 이용한 유한 요소법으로 조사하였다. 최적의 레이저 펄스로부터 원하는 시간에 목표 부위에 탄성에너지를 집중시키는 것을 보여주었고 또한 대부분의 에너지가 방향성이 큰 횡파로부터 온다는 것을 알았다. This paper is concerned with the design of optimal surface heating patterns that result in focusing acoustic energy inside a subsurface target volume at a specified target time. The surface of the solid is heated by an incident laser beam which gives rise to shear and compressional waves propagating into the solid. The optimal heating design process aims to achieve the desired energy focusing at the target with minimal laser power densities and minimal system disturbance away from the target. The optimality conditions are secured via the conjugated gradient method and by the finite element method along with using the half-space Green's function matrix. Good quality energy focusing is achived with the optimal designs reflecting the high directivity of the photothermally generated shear wave patterns.

      • 웨이블릿 영역에서의 디지털 영상 워터마킹 방법

        김영식,권오형,박래홍,Kim, Young-Sik,Kwon, O-Hyung,Park, Rae-Hong 대한전자공학회 1999 電子工學會論文誌, S Vol.s36 No.12

        본 논문에서는 인간의 시각 시스템 (human visual system)을 이용한 웨이블릿 기반 다중해상도 워터마킹 방법을 제안하였다. 각 밴드의 에너지에 비례하여 각각 다른 길이의 워터마크가 삽입되었다. 여러 실험영상을 통한 실험결과에 의하면 제안한 3단계 웨이블릿 기반 워터마크 방법이 joint photographic experts group (JPEG) 압축, smoothing, cropping, collusion, 다중 워터마크 등의 다양한 공격에 강건한 것으로 나타났다. A wavelet based multiresolution watermarking method using the human visual system (HVS) is proposed, in which a different number of watermarks, in proportion to the energy contained in each band, are embedded into each band. Experiments with various test images show that the proposed three-level wavelet based method is robust to various attacks such as joint photographic experts group (JPEG) compression, smoothing, cropping, collusion, multiple watermarking, and so on.

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