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In this paper, we describe the development of a bioreactor for a cell-culture experiment on the International SpaceStation (ISS). The bioreactor is an experimental device for culturing mouse muscle cells in a microgravity environment. The purpose of the experiment was to assess the impact of microgravity on the muscles to address the possibility of longtermhuman residence in space. After investigation of previously developed bioreactors, and analysis of the requirementsfor microgravity cell culture experiments, a bioreactor design is herein proposed that is able to automatically culture 32samples simultaneously. This reactor design is capable of automatic control of temperature, humidity, and culture-mediuminjection rate; and satisfies the interface requirements of the ISS. Since bioreactors are vulnerable to cell contamination,the medium-circulation modules were designed to be a completely replaceable, in order to reuse the bioreactor after eachexperiment. The bioreactor control system is designed to circulate culture media to 32 culture chambers at a maximumspeed of 1 ml/min, to maintain the temperature of the reactor at 36±1°C, and to keep the relative humidity of the reactorabove 70%. Because bubbles in the culture media negatively affect cell culture, a de-bubbler unit was provided to eliminatesuch bubbles. A working model of the reactor was built according to the new design, to verify its performance, and was usedto perform a cell culture experiment that confirmed the feasibility of this device.
The purpose of this paper is to analyze the heroism in the poetry of Wilfred Owen, one of the war poets on WWI. Owen’s poem is well-known for “the pity of War.” Heroism is also a vital feature of his war poems. He grew up during the last days of British imperialism and is familiar with the conventional ideas about wars. Moreover, his heroism becomes strengthened by the military atmosphere. “1914,” his first war poem and “An Imperial Elegy,” written at a military camp are the quintessential examples that seek to idealize the war. He never gives up on heroism even after suffering the effects of shell shock. Therefore, the pity of War and heroism continually co-exist creating conflict in his later poems. “Strange Meeting,” written at a war hospital, highlights the pity of War and yet consists of heroic images. Heroism becomes a relic of the past, which signifies his sorrow for losing heroism in the war and also his intention to cut it off from his poetry. After returning to the battle ground, he finally realizes his heroism by awarded the Military Cross for his military contribution and by portraying soldiers’ heroic acts in “Spring offensive.” However, the soldiers’ acts are not fully admired. This reflects his conflict between to be a hero in the field as a soldier and to reject heroism in an attempt to warn about the reality of war as a poet. His later war poems always lie between his long passion for heroism and his deeply seated contempt for WWI. This gives his war poems a tension and uniqueness.
This essay aims to examine childhood in the Victorian era as portrayed in the poems of Hopkins. In the era in question, negative conceptions of childhood were common due to Darwinism, the prevalency of juvenile delinquency, and labor-related problems. Hopkins, as a Catholic priest, sought to lead the children into a sacred and innocent mode of life and then usher them, at a very early age compared to modern practice, into the adult world that is the work place. Both “The Child is Father to the Man” and “Spring” illustrate that his concept of youth is closer to the negative Victorian view than to the optimistic Wordsworthian view. “Brothers” and “The Handsome Heart” depict attitudes like submission, self-discipline, and gentleness, which were viewed by the Victorians as appropriate for the young, demonstrating innocence and suggesting a pure future. “The Bugler’s First Communion” features a double challenge; the boy must preserve his own innocent and holy mind while also serving in a dead-end job, laboring like an adult. Hopkins expects good children to effectively integrate themselves into society, which keeps society, including the working class, united and well controlled.
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선박이 부두에 이접안할 경우 쓰러스터나 특수 추진기가 없는 선박은 예선의 도움을 받아 이접안을 하게 된다. 이접안시 예선들은 도선사의 명령에 의하여 선박의 이접안을 도와주게 된다. 이때 본선과 예선의 위치가 2차원 지도에 표시되고 부두와의 상대적인 거리가 나타난다면 이접안에 매우 도움이 될 것으로 생각된다. 본 연구에서는 이러한 예선사용 지원 시스템에 대해서 개념 설계를 수행하였다. 예선사용 지원 시스템은 본선, 예선 및 부두의 상황을 모니터링하는 예선사용 모니터링 기능과 해양환경을 고려할 때 필요한 예선력을 계산하여 나타내주는 예선사용 자동화 기능을 갖고 있다. 이러한 예선사용 지원 시스템은 항만에 설치된 네트워크를 기반으로 설계되었으며, 추후 한국해양연구원의 선박운항 시뮬레이터를 이용하여 검증될 계획이다.
This essay aims to analyze the relatedness between the religious poems of Newman and ones of Hopkins. Newman can be seen as an icon representing the conversion from the Church of England to Roman Catholicism. In his poems spiritual conflict, firm religious decisions and delight can be seen as categorizing each stage of his religious transition. “The Gift of Perseverance” is a portrayal of his guilt and self-hatred before his conversion, while his resolute decision to abandon his past self and follow his God can be seen through “Morning.” “Immortal beings” in The Dream of Gerontius sublimates his conversion with describing himself under the grace of his God. Hopkins seems to have taken the exactly same route in his conversion and even becoming a priest. Moreover his career as a religious poet was confirmed by using Newman's poems as a template for his own. “The Half-way House” displays his religious conflict, and “Moonless darkness stands between” projects his decision to submit himself to God in the same fashion to Newman's “Morning.” “As Kingfishers catch fire” describes Hopkins' delight at being unified with his God, whereas “That Nature is a Heraclitean-Fire” describes his endeavor to reconstruct himself unified with Christ in spite of being disappointed with his life. Hopkins' description of himself focuses every stage of his religious life, which seems to stem from Newman's work. While Newman may have ushered in the beginning of the examination and assertion of self in Victorian religious poetry, Hopkins was the culmination of it. 본 논문의 목적은 뉴먼과 홉킨스의 유사성을 종교적 삶을 투사하는 시의 측면에서 분석하는 것이다. 뉴먼은 빅토리아시대 영국교회에서 로마가톨릭으로 개종한 인물이다. 그의 시는 개종이라는 종교적 삶의 변화를 따라가며 종교적 갈등과 결단, 그리고 영적 환희를 묘사한다. 「인내라는 재능」은 개종 전 뉴먼의 죄의식과 자기혐오가 드러나지만, 「아침」은 자아를 버리고 신을 따르겠다는 결단이 드러난다. 제론티우스의 꿈은 개종 후 은총에 대한 확신을 “불멸의 존재”라는 표현을 통해 드러낸다. 홉킨스는 개종부터 가톨릭사제가 되기까지의 여정을 뉴먼을 따라 걷는다. 그뿐만 아니라 뉴먼의 시를 참고로 종교 시인으로서의 삶을 모색한다. 「중간에 있는 집」은 개종 전 홉킨스가 겪는 종교적 갈등을, 「달도 없는 어둠이 저 가운데 서있다」는 뉴먼의 「아침」처럼 자아를 버리고 신을 따르겠다는 결단을 노래한다. 「물총새가 불길을 잡듯이」는 개종 후 느끼는 신과 통합된 자아에 대한 기쁨을, 「저 자연은 헤라클레이토스의 불」은 절망의 삶을 딛고 신과 통합된 자아를 구현하려는 노력을 담는다. 이처럼 자아에 집중하고 종교적 삶의 장면을 투사하는 홉킨스의 특성은 뉴먼으로부터 온다. 뉴먼과 홉킨스는 자아를 점검하고 주장하는 것으로 영적 삶을 완성해나가는 빅토리아시대 종교시의 시작이자 정점이다.