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          자폐스펙트럼장애 아동청소년에서 뇌파 이상

          김양식(Yangsik Kim),고태성(Tae-Sung Ko),염미선(Mi-Sun Yum),은희(Eun-Hee Kim),효원(Hyo-Won Kim) 대한소아청소년정신의학회 2014 소아청소년정신의학 Vol.25 No.3

          Objectives:The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalences of electroencephalographic (EEG) abnormalities and epilepsy in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In addition, we intended to identify demographic and clinical correlates of epilepsy in ASD. Methods:A total of 140 children and adolescents (age 7.3±4.8 yrs, 106 boys) with ASD underwent EEG from January 2010 to December 2013 at Asan Medical Center. Medical records were reviewed for demographic information, clinical characteristics, psychiatric diagnoses and comorbidities, EEG findings and neurological diagnoses. Results:The prevalences of EEG abnormalities and epilepsy in children and adolescents with ASD was 62.1% and 38.6%, respectively. In subjects with seizure-like movements, EEG abnormalities and epilepsy were more frequent than those without seizure-like movements (EEG abnormalities : 92.5% vs. 43.7%, p<.001 ; epilepsy : 90.6% vs. 5.7%, p<.001). ASD subjects who had epilepsy were older (p=.001), had lower full scale intelligence quotient (p<.001) and took more antipsychotics (p=.006) than those who did not. Conclusion:The prevalences of EEG abnormalities and epilepsy in our sample were similar to those from Western countries. Our results suggested a possible association of older age, lower intelligence quotient, and antipsychotics use with epilepsy in ASD. Conduct of further prospective study in a larger sample is needed.

        • KCI등재

          조현병의 병태생리 기전에서 성체 신경줄기세포 이상이 미치는 영향

          김양식(Yangsik Kim) 대한신경정신의학회 2021 신경정신의학 Vol.60 No.1

          '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

          Schizophrenia is a syndrome involving positive symptoms, negative symptoms, and cognitive decline due to several causes. The neuropathological findings of schizophrenia are unclear, but the age of onset of schizophrenia is consistent from the late teens to twenties, and patients with schizophrenia usually have prodromal symptoms. Research on schizophrenia is ongoing according to the neurodevelopmental hypothesis. Neural stem cell abnormalities are suggested to affect the pathophysiology of schizophrenia through brain imaging studies, genomic studies, and postmortem brain studies in patients with schizophrenia and are consistent with the existing striatumcentered dopamine hypothesis. This paper briefly introduces neural stem cells, particularly adult neural stem cells, and striatal abnormalities and explains their effects on the pathophysiology of schizophrenia.

        • KCI등재후보

          3D 입체영화 촬영공간(空間) 활용에 관한 연구

          한화성 ( Hwasung Han ),김양식 ( Yangsik Kim ) 한국영상미디어협회 2013 예술과 미디어 Vol.12 No.2

          현재 국내 영상업계는 다양한 디지털 영상제작 기술 변화 속에서 3D 입체영상을 어떻게(생산자입장, 수용자입장)생산할 것인가에 대한 다각의 방법론적 기술 연구가 시급한 실정이다. 본고는 3D 입체영화 촬영에 있어 관객들에게 편안한 영상제공을 위한 촬영 공간설정과 영상 안에 장치되는 공간미 술의 요소들 간의 입체 값 변인들에 대해 다루고자 하였다. 3D 입체영상은 사람들에게 시각적 인지과정을 통해 시야투쟁을 유발하며, 두통과 어지러움 증세를 보일 수 있다. 때문에 3D 입체영화 촬영공간을 구성하는데 있어서 어떻게 하면 그러한 증세들을 방 지하고 최소화 할 것인지, 또 이를 위해 필요한 장 치들, 그리고 영상이미지 생산을 위한 선택적 측면 에서 촬영 공간 활용에 대해 연구하였다. 일반적으로 3D 입체영상의 모든 이미지가 2D영 상과 같은 방식으로 촬영되는 것으로 인식하고 있지만, 실제 관객의 수용적 측면에서 보면 3D 입체 영상 이미지 수용결과는 전혀 다르게 인식되어지는것으로 나타났다. 3D 입체영상 촬영은 공간에 배우나 피사체를 사 각의 프레임 안으로 끌어들이는 단순한 작업이 아니다. 따라서 3D 입체영화 제작참여 스태프들은 3D 입체영상 촬영기술에 대한 올바른 이해와 지속 적인 작업 훈련을 통해 제작에 참여해야 할 것으로 조사되었다. 3D 입체영상은 공간 안에서 배우와 피 사체 또는 배우와 공간의 소품들과의 입체 값 설정 에 따라 영상의 의미가 다르게 나타난다고 말할 수 있다. The present 3D movie production industry in Korea barely has how to produce 3D images with ever-developing digital technology (from the stances of both the filmmakers and the audience), therefore it should be studied in divers methodological perspectives. This paper aims to provide the filmmakers with the technical understanding of 3D movie making and, as a result, help the audience to enjoy the comfortable 3D images. This research excludes the 3D cinematography, but includes the following: the interrelationship between the spatial establishment for 3D shooting and the audience`s cognitive perception, and the parallax variables among the elements of the spatial art in movie production. The primary spatial perception of 3D images results from both the principle of human visual perception and the continuous training of the brain. The human visual cognitive perception in this process creates binocular vision, which often results in headache and vertigo. This paper shows the filmmakers how to minimize such symptoms by suggesting what kind of devices are required, how to choose right space and compose the devices in it, and how to use space, color and light effectively. The 3D movie shooting is not as simple as just dragging actors and other subjects into a rectangular frame. The 3D filmmakers must understand in full both 3D stereoscopic movie and its technological specifics in cinematography. The spatial establishment and composition of 3D cinema should also be based on 3D cinematography. Those who have done a 3D images project attest that they went through many tests and learned quite many aspects by trial and error. Though the 3D images usually are thought to be shot in the same process of 2D movie filming, the actual audience`s perception of the 3D images is quite different from that of 2D images. Let`s say you shot the same subjects in both 2D and 3D under the same environment. A certain visual detail in 2D images may not be detected in 3D images. And, some detail in 2D images is perceived in a totally different way in 3D images. More studies of the cognitive principles and the audience`s perception should follow this paper.

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