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Nasal carriage rate and methiciliin resistance of Staphylococcus aureus in healthy adults are not well known in Korea. In this study, nasal specimens collected from college students during March to June, 1998 were cultured for S. aureus and the susceptibility of the isolates was determined by agar dilution method and the relationship of methicillin resistance level and β -lactamase production was analyzed. Also, presence of mecA andfemA was detected from the isolates by PCR. Isolation rate of S. aureus from the 339 subjects was 20%, and the rate was higher in female (21%) than in male (12%). Among the isolates, 2.1% were MRSAs. Against MSSA, clindamycin, fusidic acid, mupirocin and vancomycin were most active (MIC50 ≤1 μg⁄ml and MIC90 2 μg⁄ml) and the resistance rates to cephalothin, eηthromycin, gentamicin and tetracycline ≤20% and to chloramphenicol and penicillin G, were 73%. The MIC range of oxacillin against MRSA was 16-≥ 128 μg⁄ml, while MIC50 and MIC90 were 32 μg⁄ml and 128 μg⁄ml, respectively. Fusidic acid, mupirocin and vancomycin were most active against MRSA (both MIC50 and MIC90 were 1 μg⁄ml). Resistance rate of MRSA to clindamycin was 18%, but they were ≥ 59% to 6 other antibiotics. β -lactamase-producing strains were more prevalent among the low level methicillin-resistant isolates. mecA was detected from all MRSAs, but none from MSSAs. femA was detected from all of the MRSAs and MSSAs and none in coagulase-negative staphylococcus. In conclusion, healthy adults occasionally carry MRSAs, but they may have acquired them in hospitals. Fusidic acid and vancomycin should be useful to treat MRSA infection, while mupirocin should be useful to control nasalcarriage. mecA and femA may be used to differentiate MRSA from MSSA, and S. aureus from coagulsae-negative staphylococcus, respectively. .
Compylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni infection in Korea has been reported in 1981, but the epidemiological information was lacking at the report. Therefore this study was undertaken to determine the Campylobacter carrier rate of the healthy Korean and of the Korean chicknens, and the antimicrobial susceptibity of the isolates from chicken. 129 stool samples from man and 296 fecal samples from chicken were collected and screened to determine the rates of Campylobacter carrier. Forty-four chicken isolates from Seoul and 30 chicken isolates from Iri city were examined the antimicrobial susceptibility. 1. The carrier rate in were examined the antimicrobial susceptibility 2. The isolation rates of the Campylobacter from Iri chickens were 50.3%. The highest rate was 76.3% on February and July, while the lowest rate ws 20.7% on March. 3. All of chicken isolates from Seoul and Iri were susceptible to amikacin and chromphenicol. 63.3% of the Seoul samples showed resistant to erythromycin.
Biochemical characteristics, enterotoxin production and antimicrobial susceptibility were determined for 30 strains of Bacillus cereus isolated from stool specimens of diarrhea patients at an university hospital in Chulabuk-do province. Positive rate for VP reaction and citrate utilization were lower, (33 % and 40 % respectively) while the rates of acid production from mannitol, arabinose, and xylose were higher (17 %, 13 % and 3 % respectively) than those obtained by other investigators. The enterotoxin gene was detected in 18 of 30 isolates (60 %) by PCR, and the toxin was detected from all of the toxin gene-positive isolates by RPLA test. The agar dilution test showed that all isolates were resistant to penicillin G and 73 % were to cephalothin, but all were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, erythromycin, fusidic acid, gentamicin, rifampin, teracycline and vancomycin. We conclude that B. cereus isolates producing acid from mannitol, arabinose and xylose exist, that PCR can be used to detect enterotoxin genes rapidly and accurately, and that this organism is susceptible to various antimicrobial agents though not penicillin G and cephalothin.
We used modified Hodge and EDTA-disk synergy tests for the screening metallo-β-lactamase producing A. baumannii isolated from a lot of imipenem-resistant clinical strains during the period of 2002-2003 in partial University Hospital, Jeonbuk, Korea. We applied PCR to detect the blaIMP-1 and blaVIM-2 gene metallo-β -lactamase. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by disk diffusion and agar dilution methods according to National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. Metallo-β-lactamase-producing A. baumannii by PCR were detected from 6 strains (7.6%) of 79 A. baumannii, while those were 1.3% in IMP-1 type and 6.3% in VIM-2 type. After DNA fingerprinting pattern of pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), 2 strains showed the same genotype. The MIC range of imipenem against VIM-2 type imipenem-resistant A. baumannii was 8-32 ㎍/ml, and MIC50 and MIC90 were 8 and 16 ㎍/ml. respectively, but that of imipenem against IMP-1 type A. baumanni was 2 ㎍/ml. To ciprofloxacin, 50% of the metallo-β-lactamase producing A. baumannii were resistant, while all were resistant to ampicillin, cefazolin, cefotaxime and cephalothin. It is concluded from this study that the modified Hodge and EDTA-disk synergy tests are simple tests for screening metallo-β-lactamase-producing A. baumannii, and IMP-1 and VIM-2 metallo-β-lactamase producing A. baumannii strains in Wonkwang University were rarely detected, thus, the PCR-aided rapid detection will be helpful for the early recognition of emerging blaIMP-1 and blaVIM-2 gene positive clinical isolates which demonstrate consistent resistance to carbapenm, and the PFGE method is useful for epidemiological studies of A. baumannii strains